c# .net barcode generator free The preceding example creates a block using catch. The catch block with symbol in Font

Create Data Matrix 2d barcode in Font The preceding example creates a block using catch. The catch block with symbol

The preceding example creates a block using catch. The catch block with symbol
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:finish as an argument will immediately terminate (and move on to any code after that block) if throw is called with the :finish symbol. Within the catch block you generate 1,000 random numbers, and if the random number is ever 123, you immediately escape out of the block using throw :finish. However, if
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you manage to generate 1,000 random numbers without generating the number 123, the loop and the block completes, and you see the message. catch and throw don t have to be directly in the same scope. throw works from methods called from within a catch block:
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def generate_random_number_except_123 x = rand(1000) throw :finish if x == 123 end
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CHAPTER 8 DOCUMENTATION, ERROR HANDLING, DEBUGGING, AND TESTING
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catch(:finish) do 1000.times { generate_random_number_except_123 } puts "Generated 1000 random numbers without generating 123!" end
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This code operates in an identical way to the first. When throw can t find a code block using :finish in its current scope, it jumps back up the stack until it can.
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The Ruby Debugger
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Debugging is the process of fixing the bugs in a piece of code. This process can be as simple as changing a small section of your program, running it, monitoring the output, and then looping through this process again and again until the output is correct and the program behaves as expected. However, constantly editing and rerunning your program gives you no insight into what s actually happening deep within your code. Sometimes you want to know what each variable contains at a certain point within your program s execution, or you might want to force a variable to contain a certain value. You can use puts to show what variables contain at certain points in your program, but you can soon make your code messy by interspersing it with debugging tricks. Ruby provides a debugging tool you can use to step through your code line by line (if you wish), set breakpoints (places where execution will stop for you to check things out), and debug your code. It s a little like irb, except you don t need to type out a whole program. You can specify your program s filename and you ll be acting as if you are within that program. For example, create a basic Ruby script called debugtest.rb:
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i = 1 j = 0 until i > 1000000 i *= 2 j += 1 end puts "i = #{i}, j = #{j}"
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If you run this code with ruby debugtest.rb, you ll get the following result:
i = 1048576, j = 20
CHAPTER 8 DOCUMENTATION, ERROR HANDLING, DEBUGGING, AND TESTING
But say you run it with the Ruby debugger like this:
ruby r debug debugtest.rb
You ll see something like this appear:
Debug.rb Emacs support available debugtest.rb:1:i = 1 (rdb:1)
This means the debugger has loaded. The third line shows you the current line of code ready to be executed (the first line, in this case), and the fourth line is a prompt that you can type on. The function of the debugger is similar to irb, and you can type expressions and statements directly onto the prompt here. However, its main strength is that you can use special commands to run debugtest.rb line by line, or set breakpoints and watches (breakpoints that rely on a certain condition becoming true for example, to stop execution when x is larger than 10). Here are the most useful commands to use at the debugger prompt: list: Lists the lines of the program currently being worked upon. You can follow list by a range of line numbers to show. For example, list 2-4 shows code lines 2 through 4. Without any arguments, list shows a local portion of the program to the current execution point. step: Runs the next line of the program. step literally steps through the program line by line, executing a single line at a time. After each step, you can check variables, change values, and so on. This allows you to trace the exact point that bugs occur. Follow step by the number of lines you wish to execute if it s higher than 1, such as step 2 to execute two lines. cont: Runs the program without stepping. Execution will continue until the program ends, reaches a breakpoint, or a watch condition becomes true. break: Sets a breakpoint at a particular line number, such as with break 3 to set a breakpoint at line 3. This means that if you continue execution with cont, execution will run until line 3 and then stop again. This is useful for stopping execution at a place where you want to see what s going on.
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