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CHAPTER 8 DOCUMENTATION, ERROR HANDLING, DEBUGGING, AND TESTING
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This output shows that the tests are started, a single test method is run (test_basic, in this case), and that a single test method with three assertions passed successfully. Say you add an assertion to test_basic that s certainly going to fail, like so:
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assert_equal("Let's make a test fail!", "foo".titleize)
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And re-run the tests:
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Loaded suite test_titleize Started F Finished in 0.239156 seconds. 1) Failure: test_basic(TestTitleize) [blah.rb:14]: <"Let's make a test fail!"> expected but was <"Foo">. 1 tests, 4 assertions, 1 failures, 0 errors
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You ve added an assertion that was bound to fail, and it has. However, Test::Unit has given you a full explanation of what happened. Using this information, you can go back and either fix the assertion or fix the code that caused the test to fail. In this case, you forced it to fail, but if your assertions are created normally, a failure such as this would demonstrate a bug in your code.
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More Test::Unit Assertions
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In the previous section you used a single type of assertion, assert_equal. assert_equal asserts that the first and second arguments are equal (whether they re numbers, strings, arrays, or objects of any other kind). The first argument is assumed to be the expected outcome and the second argument is assumed to be the generated output, as with your prior assertion:
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assert_equal("This Is A Test", "this is a test".titleize)
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assert_equal can also accept an optional third argument as a message to be displayed if the assertion fails. A message might, in some cases, prove more useful than the default assertion failure message.
CHAPTER 8 DOCUMENTATION, ERROR HANDLING, DEBUGGING, AND TESTING
You re likely to find several other types of assertions useful as follows: assert(<boolean expression>): Only passes if the boolean expression isn t false or nil (for example, assert 2 == 1 will always fail). assert_equal(expected, actual): Only passes if the expected and actual values are equal (as compared with the == operator). assert_equal('A', 'a'.upcase) will pass. assert_not_equal(expected, actual): The opposite of assert_equal. This test will fail if the expected and actual values are equal. assert_raise(exception_type, ..) { <code block> }: Only passes if the code block following the assertion raises an exception of the type(s) passed as arguments. assert_raise (ZeroDivisionError) { 2 / 0 } will pass. assert_nothing_raised(exception_type, ..) { }: The opposite of assert_raise. Only passes if none of the exceptions listed are raised. assert_instance_of(class_expected, object): Only passes if object is of class class_expected. flunk: flunk is a special type of assertion in that it will always fail. It s useful to use if you haven t quite finished writing your tests and you want to add a strong reminder that your test case isn t complete!
Note All the preceding assertions, including flunk, can take an optional message argument as the last
argument, as with assert_equal.
You ll use assertions and unit testing more in 12, where you ll develop a set of tests for a library you ll build.
Benchmarking and Profiling
Once your code is bug free and working properly, it s natural to think it s ready for release. In the real world, however, code can often be inefficient or run more slowly than it needs to. As of version 1.8, the Ruby interpreter is not particularly fast, although Ruby 1.9 and onward (including 2.0), with their entirely new implementation, are significantly faster. However, it s always important to benchmark your code to make sure it s running as efficiently as possible.
CHAPTER 8 DOCUMENTATION, ERROR HANDLING, DEBUGGING, AND TESTING
Benchmarking is the process in which you get your code or application to perform a function (often many hundreds of times in succession to average out discrepancies), and the time it takes to execute is measured. You can then refer to these times as you optimize your code. If future benchmarks run faster than previous ones, you re heading in the right direction. Luckily, Ruby provides a number of tools to help you benchmark your code.
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