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CHAPTER 3 BOOK INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
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Adding Fixtures for Books and Publishers
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We ll verify that the mapping works by creating unit tests for the mapping code. But let s first add some useful data to the books and publishers fixture files, which we ll use in later tests. Open test/fixtures/books.yml and add the following two books: pro_rails_ecommerce: id: 1 title: Pro Rails E-Commerce publisher_id: 1 isbn: 199-199-199-1 published_at: <%= Time.now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d") %> pro_rails_ecommerce_2: id: 2 title: Pro Rails E-Commerce 2nd Edition publisher_id: 1 isbn: 199-199-199-2 published_at: <%= Time.now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d") %> Note that the publisher_id column has been added to the fixture. This is a reference to a row in the database, which is inserted by the publishers.yml fixture file. Currently, no publisher has an id equal to 1, so you ll need to add the data to the publishers fixture file to complete the mapping.
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Tip You can write ERB in fixtures in the same way as in views. This allows you to create dynamic fixtures, as demonstrated in the books.yml fixture file, where Time.now is used to generate the published_at value. Although dynamic fixtures are useful in some situations, they should generally be avoided as they make tests more complex and less predictable.
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Next, add a publisher to the test/fixtures/publishers.yml file: apress: id: 1 name: Apress emporium: id: 2 name: Emporium Recall that you specify the fixtures that the unit test should load by adding a fixtures declaration. A couple of tests that we will implement later in this chapter depend on the authors, publishers, and books fixtures. The books fixture has not been added to the test yet, so change the fixtures line in the unit test as follows: fixtures :authors, :publishers, :books
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Unit Testing the One-to-Many Mapping
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Now we ll put the data into use and verify that we can access a collection of books from a publisher. This is done by adding the new test, test_has_many_and_belongs_to_mapping, to the test/unit/book_test.rb unit test: def test_has_many_and_belongs_to_mapping apress = Publisher.find_by_name("Apress") assert_equal 2, apress.books.size book = Book.new( :title => 'Rails E-Commerce 3nd Edition', :authors => [Author.find_by_first_name_and_last_name('Christian', 'Hellsten'), Author.find_by_first_name_and_last_name('Jarkko', 'Laine')], :published_at => Time.now, :isbn => '123-123-123-x', :blurb => 'E-Commerce on Rails', :page_count => 300, :price => 30.5 ) apress.books << book apress.reload book.reload assert_equal 3, apress.books.size assert_equal 'Apress', book.publisher.name end
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Note The unit test doesn t call book.save explicitly. ActiveRecord is smart enough to know that it must persist the book to the database when the book is added to the author s collection of books. Also note that you could use assert_difference (introduced in the previous chapter), instead of two calls to assert_equal.
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CHAPTER 3 BOOK INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
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The unit test performs the following tasks in order: 1. Look up a publisher and verify that there are two books in the books collection. These two books are inserted by the fixture at the start of the test. 2. Create a new book and associate two authors with it. 3. Add the new book to the publisher s collection of books. 4. Reload the book and publisher data from the database. 5. Verify that the publisher has three books, instead of the original count of two. 6. Verify that the publisher s name is the one we assigned.
Note The order the fixtures are listed in is important. The fixture data is inserted in the order it is listed. For example, putting the publishers fixture after the books fixture would result in a foreign key error when the test is run and Rails tries to insert the fixture data: ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid: Mysql::Error: Cannot add or update a child row: a foreign key constraint fails.
Next, run the unit tests. You should see all tests pass without any errors. $ ruby test/unit/book_test.rb Loaded suite test/unit/book_test Started ... Finished in 0.359 seconds. 3 tests, 13 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors To see the SQL that is executed by ActiveRecord behind the scenes, tail the logs/test.log file by executing the following command in a separate console window: $ tail -f logs/test.log
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