vb.net 2d barcode dll plus: (Int,Int)java.lang.String in Font

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plus: (Int,Int)java.lang.String
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scala> val p = (b: Int) => plus(42, b)
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p: (Int) => java.lang.String = <function>
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In the previous code, we ve turned a method that takes two Int parameters into a function that supplies the first parameter, in this case 42, but that needs a second Int parameter to fulfill the requirements for the application of plus. In this case, p is a partial application of plus, and we can complete the application by supplying an Int to p. It turns out that partial application of functions is a common thing. It allows you to build up functions based on values in a given scope and allows for better code reuse. Scala
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CHAPTER 4 FUN WITH FUNCTIONS, AND NEVER HAVING TO CLOSE THAT JDBC CONNECTION
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provides syntax to make it easier to build partially applied functions. Parameters can be specified in different parenthesis groups:
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scala> def add(a: Int)(b: Int) = "Result is: "+(a + b)
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add: (Int)(Int)java.lang.String
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And we call methods defined this way with the following syntax:
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scala> add(1)(2)
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res27: java.lang.String = Result is: 3
At this point, you may be thinking that this syntax is not particularly pleasing. As they say in late-night TV ads, But wait, there s more! With this syntax, you can pass code blocks as parameters separately from other parameters. We ll see more of this when we create control structures.
scala> add(1){ val r = new java.util.Random r.nextInt(100) }
res28: java.lang.String = Result is: 63
Ah, this might be useful after all. It also allows you to easily promote a method to a partially applied function very easily:
scala> w42(add(1))
res24: String = Result is: 43
CHAPTER 4 FUN WITH FUNCTIONS, AND NEVER HAVING TO CLOSE THAT JDBC CONNECTION
You can also create a function by partially applying a method and converting this into a function:
scala> def f2 = add(1) _
f2: (Int) => java.lang.String
And that function can be passed to another method:
scala> w42(f2)
res25: String = Result is: 43
Functions and Type Parameters
Methods can have type parameters. Type parameters define the type of other parameters or of the method s return value. Note that functions cannot take type parameters. The parameter and return types of a function must be defined when the function is created. We saw some type parameters in 2 when we saw how the return type of the function passed to map alters the type of the returned List. We can define a method, t42, which takes a type parameter, T, and a function that takes an Int and returns a T. The t42 method returns a T:
scala> def t42[T](f: Int => T): T = f(42)
t42: [T]((Int) => T)T
So, we can pass our f function, Int => String, and t42 returns a String:
scala> t42(f)
res29: String = Dude: 42
CHAPTER 4 FUN WITH FUNCTIONS, AND NEVER HAVING TO CLOSE THAT JDBC CONNECTION
But, if we pass in a function that returns an Int, t42 returns an Int:
scala> t42(1 +)
res30: Int = 43
And we can pass in a function that returns a List[Int]:
scala> val intList: Int => List[Int] = i => (1 to i).toList
intList: (Int) => List[Int] = <function>
scala> t42(intList)
res31: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, , 39, 40, 41, 42)
In the previous examples, we did not have to explicitly define the type parameter because the type inferencer figured it out for us. However, you could explicitly define it:
scala> t42[Int](1 +)
res30: Int = 43
Functions Bound to Variables in Scope
Functions are bound to the variables in the scope in which the function is created. This can come in very handy as it allows you to carry state around with them. For example, let s create a variable, foo, and assign it a value:
scala> val foo = "dog"
foo: java.lang.String = dog
CHAPTER 4 FUN WITH FUNCTIONS, AND NEVER HAVING TO CLOSE THAT JDBC CONNECTION
Next, let s create a function that takes a function that references the variable:
scala> val whoTo = (s: String) => s+" "+foo
whoTo: (String) => java.lang.String = <function>
Let s call the function:
scala> whoTo("I love my")
res39: java.lang.String = I love my dog
scala> whoTo("I walk my")
res40: java.lang.String = I walk my dog
Functions can be bound to vars and vals. Functions can even modify vars. First, let s define the var strs which is a List[String]:
scala> var strs: List[String] = Nil
strs: List[String] = List()
Next, let s create a function that takes a String and returns a String but has the side effect of modifying the strs variable by prepending s to the list:
scala> val strF = (s: String) => {strs ::= s; s+" Registered"}
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