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CHAPTER 5 PATTERN MATCHING
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package <empty> { final class MyMules extends java.lang.Object with ScalaObject { @remote def $tag(): Int = scala.ScalaObject$class.$tag(MyMules.this); def myMules(name: java.lang.String): Option = { <synthetic> val temp1: java.lang.String = name; if (temp1.==("Elwood")) body%0(){ new Some("Cat") } else if (temp1.==("Madeline")) body%0() else if (temp1.==("Archer")) body%1(){ new Some("Dog") } else if (temp1.==("Pumpkin")) body%2(){ new Some("Fish") } else if (temp1.==("Firetruck")) body%2() else body%3(){ scala.None } }; def this(): object MyMules = { MyMules.super.this(); () } } }
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Patterns can match across different types in the same statement:
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def test1(in: Any): String = in match { case 1 => "One" case "David" | "Archer" | Some("Dog") => "Walk" case _ => "No Clue" }
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The previous code introduces the _ as a wildcard pattern. This is consistent with Scala s use of the underscore as a wildcard in other contexts.
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Pattern matching is a very powerful way to avoid explicit casting. In Java, there is a separation between the instanceof test and the casting operation. This often results in bugs when a block of test/cast code is copied and pasted. There s no compiler check that the instanceof test matches the cast, and it s not uncommon to have a mismatch between the test and the cast in Java code that s been copied and pasted. Let s write a method that tests an incoming Object to see whether it s a String, an Integer, or something else. Depending on what type it is, different actions will be performed.
public String test2(Object in) { if (in == null) { return "null"; } if (in instanceof String) { String s = (String) in; return "String, length " + s.length(); } if (in instanceof Integer) { int i = ((Integer) in).intValue(); if (i > 0) { return "Natural Int"; } return "Another Int"; } return in.getClass().getName(); }
CHAPTER 5 PATTERN MATCHING
The same code in Scala is shorter, and there s no explicit casting.
def test2(in: Any) = in match { case s: String => "String, length "+s.length case i: Int if i > 0 => "Natural Int" case i: Int => "Another Int" case a: AnyRef => a.getClass.getName case _ => "null" }
The first line tests for a String. If it is a String, the parameter is cast into a String and assigned to the s variable, and the expression on the right of the => is returned. Note that if the parameter is null, it will not match any pattern that compares to a type. On the next line, the parameter is tested as an Int. If it is an Int, the parameter is cast to an Int, assigned to i, and the guard is tested. If the Int is a natural number (greater than zero), Natural Int will be returned. In this way, Scala pattern matching replaces Java s test/cast paradigm. I find that it s very, very rare that I do explicit testing and casting in Scala.
Case Classes
We saw case classes earlier in the book. They are classes that get toString, hashCode, and equals methods automatically. It turns out that they also get properties and extractors. Case classes also have properties and can be constructed without using new. Let s define a case class:
case class Person(name: String, age: Int, valid: Boolean)
Let s create an instance of one:
scala> val p = Person("David", 45, true)
p: Person = Person(David,45,true)
You may use new to create a person as well:
scala> val m = new Person("Martin", 44, true)
m: Person = Person(Martin,44,true)
CHAPTER 5 PATTERN MATCHING
Each of the Person instances has properties that correspond to the constructor parameters:
scala> p.name
res0: String = David
scala> p.age
res1: Int = 45
scala> p.valid
res2: Boolean = true
By default, the properties are read-only, and the case class is immutable.
scala> p.name = "Fred"
<console>:7: error: reassignment to val p.name = "Fred"
You can also make properties mutable:
scala> case class MPerson(var name: String, var age: Int)
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