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The ability to add new methods to existing classes has a lot of value for making code more readable and expressive. More importantly, implicit conversions make it possible to define DSLs in Scala. As a library producer, we can create syntactically pleasing ways of expressing concepts in a type-safe way. Wouldn t it be nice to express a time span as 3 days or 15 seconds Wouldn t that make code a lot more readable than (3L * 24L * 3600L * 1000L) Wouldn t it be great to set a timeout or a trigger with 2.hours.later Let s define a library using implicit conversions. Let s look at the code in Listing 7-1 and then break it down.
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2. The Predef is the stuff that the compiler imports by default. You can see what implicit conversions are defined in Predef by reading http://lampsvn.epfl.ch/trac/scala/browser/scala/tags/R_2_7_3_final/ src/library/scala/Predef.scala view=markup. 3. Dr. Martin Odersky, ACM Fellow, Full Professor, coined the term in this blog post: http://www.artima.com/ weblogs/viewpost.jsp thread=179766.
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CHAPTER 7 TRAITS AND TYPES AND GNARLY STUFF FOR ARCHITECTS
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Listing 7-1. Timespan DSL import java.util.Date object TimeHelpers { case class TimeSpanBuilder(val len: Long) { def seconds = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.seconds(len)) def second = seconds def minutes = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.minutes(len)) def minute = minutes def hours = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.hours(len)) def hour = hours def days = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.days(len)) def day = days def weeks = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.weeks(len)) def week = weeks } def def def def def seconds(in: Long): Long = in * 1000L minutes(in: Long): Long = seconds(in) * 60L hours(in: Long): Long = minutes(in) * 60L days(in: Long): Long = hours(in) * 24L weeks(in: Long): Long = days(in) * 7L
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implicit def longToTimeSpanBuilder(in: Long): TimeSpanBuilder = TimeSpanBuilder(in) implicit def intToTimeSpanBuilder(in: Int): TimeSpanBuilder = TimeSpanBuilder(in) def millis = System.currentTimeMillis case class TimeSpan(millis: Long) extends Ordered[TimeSpan] { def later = new Date(millis + TimeHelpers.millis) def ago = new Date(TimeHelpers.millis - millis) def +(in: TimeSpan) = TimeSpan(this.millis + in.millis) def -(in: TimeSpan) = TimeSpan(this.millis - in.millis) def compare(other: TimeSpan) = millis compare other.millis }
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CHAPTER 7 TRAITS AND TYPES AND GNARLY STUFF FOR ARCHITECTS
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object TimeSpan { implicit def tsToMillis(in: TimeSpan): Long = in.millis } class DateMath(d: Date) { def +(ts: TimeSpan) = new Date(d.getTime + ts.millis) def -(ts: TimeSpan) = new Date(d.getTime - ts.millis) } implicit def dateToDM(d: Date) = new DateMath(d) }
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We import java.util.Date because we re going to make use of it.
import java.util.Date
object TimeHelpers {
We define a class that takes a Long as a parameter and has a series of methods that convert the Long into a TimeSpanBuilder represented by the length.
case class TimeSpanBuilder(len: Long) { def seconds = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.seconds(len)) def second = seconds def minutes = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.minutes(len)) def minute = minutes def hours = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.hours(len)) def hour = hours def days = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.days(len)) def day = days def weeks = TimeSpan(TimeHelpers.weeks(len)) def week = weeks }
Let s define a bunch of helper methods (called from TimeSpanBuilder) that convert to the correct number of milliseconds.
def def def def def seconds(in: Long): Long = in * 1000L minutes(in: Long): Long = seconds(in) * 60L hours(in: Long): Long = minutes(in) * 60L days(in: Long): Long = hours(in) * 24L weeks(in: Long): Long = days(in) * 7L
CHAPTER 7 TRAITS AND TYPES AND GNARLY STUFF FOR ARCHITECTS
Next, we define a bunch of implicit methods that convert from Int or Long into a TimeSpanBuilder. This allows the methods such as minutes or days on TimeSpanBuilder to appear to be part of Int and Long.4
implicit def longToTimeSpanBuilder(in: Long): TimeSpanBuilder = TimeSpanBuilder(in) implicit def intToTimeSpanBuilder(in: Int): TimeSpanBuilder = TimeSpanBuilder(in)
And we define a helper method that gets the current time in milliseconds:
def millis = System.currentTimeMillis
We define the TimeSpan class that represents a span of time. We can do math with other TimeSpans or convert this TimeSpan into a Date by calling the later or ago methods. TimeSpan extends the Ordered trait so that we can compare and sort TimeSpans.
case class TimeSpan(millis: Long) extends Ordered[TimeSpan] { def later = new Date(millis + TimeHelpers.millis) def ago = new Date(TimeHelpers.millis - millis) def +(in: TimeSpan) = TimeSpan(this.millis + in.millis) def -(in: TimeSpan) = TimeSpan(this.millis - in.millis)
We compare this TimeSpan to another to satisfy the requirements of the Ordered trait:
def compare(other: TimeSpan) = millis compare other.millis }
Next, we define a companion object that has an implicit method that will convert a TimeSpan into a Long. We ll go into more depth about implicit scoping rules in the next subsection, but briefly, if there is an object with the same name as a class, that object is considered a companion object. If there are any implicit conversions defined in the companion object, they will be consulted if an instance of the class needs to be converted. We define an implicit conversion from TimeSpan to Long in the companion object. This will result in TimeSpan instances being automatically converted to Long if the TimeSpan is assigned to a Long variable or passed as a parameter that requires a Long.
object TimeSpan { implicit def tsToMillis(in: TimeSpan): Long = in.millis }
4. We have to define separate implicit conversions for Int and Long because the Scala compiler will not automatically chain implicit conversions. To Scala, Int and Long are different types, but it will convert Int to Long because of the implicit conversion in Predef.
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