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CHAPTER 7 TRAITS AND TYPES AND GNARLY STUFF FOR ARCHITECTS
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Compared to the Ruby code, the library parts of the Scala code were more complex. We had to do a lot of work to make sure our types were correct. We had to manually rewrite Creature s properties in the DupMonster and the CreatureCons classes.18 This is more work than method_missing. We also had to do a fair amount of work to support immutability in our Creatures and Weapons.19 On the other hand, the result was much more powerful than the Ruby version. If we had to write tests for our Ruby code to test what the Scala compiler assures us of, we d need a lot more lines of code. For example, we can be sure that our Rabbit could not wield an Axe. To get this assurance in Ruby, we d have to write a test that makes sure that invoking |^ on a Rabbit fails. Our Scala version ensures that only the Weapons defined for a given Creature can be used by that Creature, something that would require a lot of runtime reflection in Ruby. The end user code is pretty much the same between the Scala and Ruby code. The definition of Rabbit and the various Monsters is similar lines of code and similar readability to the Ruby code. So, we ve seen that as a library producer, our life is more challenging. But it gives the library consumer the same conciseness and flexibility as a scripting language and a materially better set of assurances that the code is correct.
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Summary
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Wow, that was an awful lot of material to cover in a single chapter. Type systems in general are a very complex topic. Benjamin Pierce spends nearly 500 pages covering the topic in Types and Programming Languages (The MIT Press, 2002), a very good read for an in-depth exploration of types and how they can be used to write better programs.20 We also covered a lot of the features that make Scala a powerful language for writing programs. We saw how Scala s implicit conversions lead to very simple and concise DSLs. We saw how Scala s traits can be composed into very powerful classes. You can even do dependency injection without external libraries using Scala s traits.21 We saw how complex concepts such as covariance and contravariance lead to safe and powerful ways to use type parameters.
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18. We could have avoided some of that by using the JVM s proxy-generation facilities. See http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/guide/reflection/proxy.html. 19. The use of Array and Tuples here strongly motivates the development of HList for Scala, which would reduce the size and complexity of the library code a lot; see http://www.artima.com/ forums/flat.jsp forum=283&thread=237780 20. Types and Programming Languages is intended for computer science grad students who are thinking about designing new programming languages. 21. See http://jonasboner.com/2008/10/06/real-world-scala-dependency-injection-di.html.
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CHAPTER 7 TRAITS AND TYPES AND GNARLY STUFF FOR ARCHITECTS
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Finally, we saw how some extra thought and work as the library producer leads to easy-touse and type-safe libraries that allow the library consumers to write code that s as concise and easy to read as scripting language code but that s got the compiler making sure that dragons don t use bombs that are meant for use by rabbits. In the next chapter, we re going to roll many of Scala s concepts together by building parsers using Scala s parser combinator library. We re going to be library consumers and experience how easy it is to use a well-written Scala library.
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Parsers Because BNF Is Not Just for Academics Anymore
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e ve covered a lot of ground so far, but most of the examples have been one or two lines of code. Sure, the control structures are helpful, and of course most of our programming projects pit dragons and bunnies in battle, but one of the biggest challenges we face is dealing with real-world data. If we re lucky, the real-world data will be well formed in XML. But sometimes we re not so lucky. Sometimes we re handed a spec for a wire format or a text file format and told to deal with it. Good news: Scala is very good at helping you deal with it. Scala comes with a parser combinator library that makes writing parsers simple. Furthermore, because your parser is written in Scala, there s a single compilation step, and you get all the benefits of Scala s type safety. In this chapter, we re going to explore combinators and Scala s parser combinatory library.
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