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Listing 2-9 is an example of a package spec. It shows the package spec for the package DATES, which is a utility package for date-related constants and functions. Listing 2-9. The DATES Package Spec, dates.pks 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE DATES AS /* dates.pks by Donald J. Bales on 12/15/2006 Additional DATE data type methods. */ -- The maximum and minimum date values. d_MAX constant date := to_date('99991231235959', 'YYYYMMDDHH24MISS'); d_MIN constant date := to_date('-47120101', 'SYYYYMMDD');
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-- Returns the specified date with the time set to 23:59:59, therefore, -- the end of the day. FUNCTION end_of_day( aid_date return
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date ) date;
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CHAPTER 2 PL/SQL IS SQUA RE, MA N!
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-- Returns constant d_MAX. This is useful in SQL statements where the -- constant DATES.d_MAX is not accessible. FUNCTION get_max return
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-- Returns constant d_MIN. This is useful in SQL statements where the -- constant DATES.d_MIN is not accessible. FUNCTION get_min return
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date;
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-- Text-based help for this package. "set serveroutput on" in SQL*Plus. PROCEDURE help;
-- Returns a randomly generated date that exists between the years specified. FUNCTION random( ain_starting_year ain_ending_year return
in in
number, number ) date;
-- Returns the specified date with the time set to 00:00:00, therefore, the -- start of the day. FUNCTION start_of_day( aid_date return
date ) date;
-- Test unit for this package. PROCEDURE test;
end DATES; / @se.sql DATES
CHAPTER 2 PL/SQL IS S QUA RE, M AN!
The DDL syntax used to create the package spec in Listing 2-9 is as follows: CREATE [OR REPLACE] PACKAGE <package_name> AS -- one or more: constant, cursor, function, procedure, or variable declarations END <package_name>; where <package_name> is the name of the package you re creating. Not much to a package spec Sure there is. Now, instead of using the DDL CREATE FUNCTION or CREATE PROCEDURE, you ll use the keywords FUNCTION and PROCEDURE for each PL/SQL method you want to declare globally. Let s take a look at the package spec in Listing 2-9: Line 1 uses the DDL keywords to CREATE a stored PACKAGE specification. Lines 10 and 12 declare two global constants (ones available to any other PL/SQL stored procedure), d_MAX and d_MIN, which are the current maximum and minimum date values supported by Oracle. Lines 19, 27, 34, 45, and 54 declare five date functions. Please note that these are only declarations; they have no code. The code will be found in the package body. Lines 40 and 61 declare two helper procedures. We will discuss these helper procedures in great length in s 7, 8, and 9. Line 64 ends the PACKAGE declaration with the keyword END. On line 65, I tell Oracle to store and compile the package spec. Line 66 calls a helper SQL script to show any errors. You may also have noticed that I took the time to document the purpose of every declaration in the package spec. You should do the same. Documenting as you go is one of the major characteristics of a professional PL/SQL programmer.
It s Your Turn to Create a Package Specification
Do you remember the function to_number_or_null() in Listing 2-2 Now you will create a package called NUMBERS that has that as one of its methods. Mimic what I just showed you as you follow these steps: 1. Write the DDL to create a package spec called NUMBERS. 2. Save your DDL script as numbers.pks. 3. Execute your DDL script in SQL*Plus: SQL> @numbers.pks. 4. Type desc numbers at the SQL*Plus prompt to verify that your package spec exists. As usual, if you get any errors, work on your script until you hate me, or figure out what s wrong so you can compile the script successfully. Remember to use the script in Listing 2-9 as a model. Listing 2-10 shows my solution.
CHAPTER 2 PL/SQL IS SQUA RE, MA N!
Listing 2-10. The NUMBERS Package Spec, numbers.pks 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 create or replace package NUMBERS as /* numbers.pks by Donald J. Bales on 12/15/2006 A utility package for the data type NUMBER */ /* Returns the passed varchar2 as a number if it represents a number, otherwise, it returns NULL */ FUNCTION to_number_or_null ( aiv_number in varchar2 ) return number; end NUMBERS; / @se.sql
There s no way to test the package spec, because there s no code yet. The code goes in the package body.
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