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CHAPTER 8 TESTING
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3. Test everything: If it can break, test it. If it can produce effects or output that s not clear from its interface, test it. Even simple components can produce errors in other components if their intent or function is not clear. I equate tests in software to formal proofs in mathematics. Unless there is a comprehensive set of tests, any assurance of a component quality is just an illusion. 4. Establish a test harness early in the development: Set up testing as part of the build and if possible, use a test framework that integrates well with your development tools; doing this early in a project will ensure that the whole team embraces testing and that it becomes the path of least resistance. 5. Code enough to pass the unit tests: The task is complete when the unit test is complete. Just like code shouldn t be checked into a version control system without compiling, code shouldn t be checked in unless it has a comprehensive set of unit tests and those tests pass. 6. Map tests to use cases, user stories, or features: Regardless of what requirement gathering techniques you use, map those requirements to a clearly defined set of tests. 7. Enable continuous integration: As you ll learn in 9, continuous integration hinges on developers running the unit tests before the code is checked in. In addition, all unit tests should be executed in a build server at least once a day (hourly seems to work well as a build interval) or after any code has been checked in. 8. Don t overtest: Test enough to cover functionality. Add new tests as defects appear. Use techniques such as equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis to minimize the number of tests needed. Grouping, categorizing, and organizing your tests can ensure that you don t write redundant tests and that the tests cover the range of features and scenarios for a given component.
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The best practices mentioned in the preceding section are possible in practice thanks to the tools created by the open source community. In this chapter we will cover some of the tools, but before we jump into the code, it is important to understand the different categories of testing tools available: Test Frameworks: Frameworks such as JUnit and TestNG are inspired by the xUnit family of unit/regression testing frameworks, which provide basic capabilities for creating, running, and reporting the results of tests. In-Container Testing Tools: These tools enable you to test the functionality of containerdependent components, usually making them appear as if they are simple Java objects. Web Testing Tools: These tools usually extend an existing test framework to enable tests based on the HTTP protocol and are a subset of in-container testing tools.
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CHAPTER 8 TESTING
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Test Coverage Tools: These tools enable you to determine how much of an application is covered by tests. Mock Object Frameworks: Mock object frameworks provide the ability to dynamically create objects that can be used to mock up collaborating objects required in a functional test.
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For many years, unit testing has consisted of System.out.println() functions or testing code in a class s main method. Though this form of testing can be effective, it is a reactive measure that has some drawbacks: it requires human intervention and interpretation, it taints production code and deploys testing code, and the results aren t very repeatable. The most notable of the testing frameworks is JUnit, which is as of this date the 400-pound gorilla of testing and has been extended by other projects to provide testing on many areas of software development. JUnit is the pioneering framework that brought testing back into the limelight. JUnit, hosted at www.junit.org, is a simple framework based on Java introspection and the concepts of test methods, test classes, and test suites. The framework includes extendable classes used to create tests and test runners that run the tests and present the results. The junit.framework package contains the interface and classes used to develop unit tests. The Test interface is a simple interface used to define a test. Rather than implement the Test interface directly, most users extend the abstract base class junit.framework.TestCase or the concrete class junit.framework.TestSuite. A TestCase contains the tests for a single unit, while a TestSuite is a collection of Test classes. In Java, a unit is a class. Therefore, a TestCase typically contains all the tests for a single class. A test tests a single method of a class or a single unit of work. Tests have one of three outcomes: pass, fail, or error. If a test passes, the method or unit of work implements all the functionality as expected. A failure occurs when an expected value doesn t equal an actual value. For example, a test might be written to check that the size is incremented when an object is added to a collection. Assertions are used to compare the actual value to the expected value. Uncaught Exceptions are the cause of errors. A test runner can be used to execute a TestCase and report the results. There are many test runners available. To define a test, extend the junit.framework.TestCase class and add the appropriate test methods similar to those shown in Listing 8-2. A test is a method with no return value, no parameter, and the name testXXXX. In the test method, the Assert class static methods are used to determine if actual result values of a test equal the expected values. The Assert class contains many static assert methods. Aside from the expected and actual parameters, most of the methods have an optional message parameter for describing the failure. An example is the overloaded assertEquals method for comparing just about every defined data type. In addition to the assertEquals there are assertNotNull, assertFalse, assertNotSame, assertNull, and assertTrue. The Assert class also contains a fail method for explain failures. The TestCase class extends Assert so it isn t necessary to directly use the Assert class in the TestCase. A Test class can also optionally override the setUp and tearDown methods to prepare and clean up the state of a test. The setUp method is called prior to every execution of a test method, and the tearDown is called immediately afterward.
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