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CHAPTER 6 ABSTRACTION
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4. You store the strings 'first', 'middle', and 'last' as a tuple in labels. (You could certainly use a list here: it s just convenient to drop the brackets.) 5. You use the zip function to combine the labels and names so they line up properly, and for each pair (label, name), you do the following: (1) Fetch the list belonging to the given label and name; (2) Append full_name to that list, or insert a new list if needed. Let s try it out: >>> MyNames = {} >>> init(MyNames) >>> store(MyNames, 'Magnus Lie Hetland') >>> lookup(MyNames, 'middle', 'Lie') ['Magnus Lie Hetland'] It seems to work. Let s try some more: >>> store(MyNames, 'Robin Hood') >>> store(MyNames, 'Robin Locksley') >>> lookup(MyNames, 'first', 'Robin') ['Robin Hood', 'Robin Locksley'] >>> store(MyNames, 'Mr. Gumby') >>> lookup(MyNames, 'middle', '') ['Robin Hood', 'Robin Locksley', 'Mr. Gumby'] As you can see, if more people share the same first, middle, or last name, you can retrieve them all together.
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Note This sort of application is well suited to object-oriented programming, which is explained in the
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next chapter.
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What If My Parameter Is Immutable
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In some languages (such as C++, Pascal, or Ada), rebinding parameters and having these changes affect variables outside the function is an everyday thing. In Python, it s not directly possible: you can only modify the parameter objects themselves. But what if you have an immutable parameter, such as a number Sorry, but it can t be done. What you should do is return all the values you need from your function (as a tuple, if there is more than one). For example, a function that increments the numeric value of a variable by one could be written like this: >>> def inc(x): return x + 1 ... >>> foo = 10 >>> foo = inc(foo) >>> foo 11
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CHAPTER 6 ABSTRACTION
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If you really want to modify your parameter, you can use a little trick wrap your value in a list: >>> def inc(x): x[0] = x[0] + 1 ... >>> foo = [10] >>> inc(foo) >>> foo [11] Simply returning the new value is generally considered a cleaner solution.
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Keyword Parameters and Defaults
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The parameters we ve been using until now are called positional parameters because their positions are important more important than their names, in fact. Consider the following two functions: def hello_1(greeting, name): print '%s, %s!' % (greeting, name) def hello_2(name, greeting): print '%s, %s!' % (name, greeting) They both do exactly the same thing, only with their parameter names reversed: >>> hello_1('Hello', 'world') Hello, world! >>> hello_2('Hello', 'world') Hello, world! Sometimes (especially if you have many parameters) the order may be hard to remember. To make things easier, you can supply the name of our parameter: >>> hello_1(greeting='Hello', name='world') Hello, world! The order here doesn t matter at all: >>> hello_1(name='world', greeting='Hello') Hello, world! The names do, however (as you may have gathered): >>> hello_2(greeting='Hello', name='world') world, Hello!
CHAPTER 6 ABSTRACTION
The parameters that are supplied with a name like this are called keyword parameters. On their own, the key strength of keyword parameters is that they can help clarify the role of each parameter. Instead of having to use some odd and mysterious call like >>> store('Mr. Brainsample', 10, 20, 13, 5) you could use >>> store(patient='Mr. Brainsample', hour=10, minute=20, day=13, month=5) Even though it takes a bit more typing, it is absolutely clear what each parameter does. Also, if you get the order mixed up, it doesn t matter. What really makes keyword arguments rock, however, is that you can give the parameters in the function default values: def hello_3(greeting='Hello', name='world'): print '%s, %s!' % (greeting, name) When a parameter has a default value like this, you don t have to supply it when you call the function! You can supply none, some, or all, as the situation might dictate: >>> hello_3() Hello, world! >>> hello_3('Greetings') Greetings, world! >>> hello_3('Greetings', 'universe') Greetings, universe! As you can see, this works well with positional parameters, except that you have to supply the greeting if you want to supply the name. What if you want to supply only the name, leaving the default value for the greeting I m sure you ve guessed it by now: >>> hello_3(name='Gumby') Hello, Gumby! Pretty nifty, huh And that s not all. You can combine positional and keyword parameters. The only requirement is that all the positional parameters come first. If they don t, the interpreter won t know which ones they are (that is, which position they are supposed to have).
Note Unless you know what you re doing, you might want to avoid such mixing. It is generally used when
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