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WRITING AND AUTOMATING SQL*PLUS SCRIPTS
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another, and finally return an appropriate exit status to the calling program. This is useful for automating any special operations that your application or database require.
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Note For obvious reasons, listings in this chapter are all taken directly from SQL*Plus. They show the typical artifacts such as command-prompts and substitution-prompts that you ll encounter during a SQL*Plus session.
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11.1 SQL*Plus Variables
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SQL*Plus supports the following three variable types: Substitution variables User-defined variables System variables
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SQL*Plus Substitution Variables
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Substitution variables appear in SQL or SQL*Plus commands. SQL*Plus prompts for a value when you execute those commands. We have used substitution variables in earlier examples in this book (Listing 5-14, for example, to test certain commands multiple times with different literal values. Substitution variable values are volatile; that is, SQL*Plus doesn t remember them and doesn t store them anywhere. This is what distinguishes substitution variables from the other two types. If you execute the same SQL or SQL*Plus command again, SQL*Plus prompts for a value again. The default character that makes SQL*Plus prompt for a substitution variable value is the ampersand (&), also known as the DEFINE character. Check out what happens in Listing 11-1. Listing 11-1. Using the DEFINE Character (&) SQL> select * from departments 2 where dname like upper('%&letter%'); Enter value for letter: a old 2: where dname like upper('%&letter%') new 2: where dname like upper('%a%') DEPTNO -------10 20 30 SQL> DNAME ---------ACCOUNTING TRAINING SALES LOCATION MGR -------- -------NEW YORK 7782 DALLAS 7566 CHICAGO 7698
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Actually, if a substitution variable occurs twice within a single command, SQL*Plus also prompts twice for a value, as demonstrated in Listing 11-2. Listing 11-2. Prompting Twice for the Same Variable SQL> select ename from employees 2 where empno between &x and &x+100; Enter Enter old new value for value for 2: where 2: where x: 7500 x: 7500 empno between &x and &x+100 empno between 7500 and 7500+100
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ENAME -------WARD JONES SQL> You can use the period character (.) to mark the end of the name of a substitution variable, as shown in Listing 11-3. The period (.) is also known as the CONCAT character in SQL*Plus. Normally, you don t need the CONCAT character very often, because white space is good enough to delimit variable names; however, white space in strings can sometimes be undesirable. See Listing 11-3 for an example. Listing 11-3. Using the DEFINE and CONCAT Characters SQL> select '&drink.glass' as result from dual; Enter value for drink: beer old 1: select '&drink.glass' as result from dual new 1: select 'beerglass' as result from dual RESULT --------beerglass SQL> Note that you can display the current settings of the DEFINE and CONCAT characters with the SQL*Plus SHOW command, and you can change these settings with the SQL*Plus SET command, as shown in Listing 11-4.
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WRITING AND AUTOMATING SQL*PLUS SCRIPTS
Listing 11-4. Displaying the DEFINE and CONCAT Character Settings SQL> show define define "&" (hex 26) SQL> show concat concat "." (hex 2e) SQL> If you don t want SQL*Plus to display the explicit replacement of substitution variables by the values you entered (as in Listings 11-1, 11-2, and 11-3), you can suppress that with the SQL*Plus VERIFY setting, as shown in Listing 11-5. Listing 11-5. Switching the VERIFY Setting ON and OFF SQL> set verify on SQL> set verify off SQL> show verify verify OFF SQL> If you change the VERIFY setting to OFF, as shown in Listing 11-5, and you execute the SQL command (still in the SQL buffer) with the SQL*Plus RUN command, you don t see the old: ... and new: ... lines anymore, as shown in Listing 11-6. Listing 11-6. The Effect of VERIFY OFF SQL> select ename from employees 2 where empno between &x and &x+100; Enter value for x: 7500 Enter value for x: 7500 ENAME -------WARD JONES SQL>
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