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SQL*Plus User-Defined Variables
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If you want to store the value of a SQL*Plus variable (at least temporarily) so you can use it multiple times, you need the next category of SQL*Plus variables: user-defined variables. You can use the SQL*Plus DEFINE command to declare user-defined variables and to assign values to them, as shown in Listing 11-7.
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Listing 11-7. Assigning Values to User-Defined Variables with DEFINE SQL> define x=7500 SQL> select ename from employees 2 where empno between &x and &x+100; ENAME -------WARD JONES SQL> The DEFINE command in Listing 11-7 stores the user-defined variable X with its value 7500. That s why SQL*Plus doesn t prompt for a value for X anymore in Listing 11-7. The SQL*Plus DEFINE command not only allows you to assign values to user-defined variables, but also to display current values. Using the DEFINE command, you can display the value of a specific variable. You can also display a complete listing of all user-defined variables by not specifying a variable name and just entering the DEFINE command itself. The SQL*Plus UNDEFINE command allows you to remove a user-defined variable. Listing 11-8 shows examples of DEFINE and UNDEFINE. Listing 11-8. DEFINE and UNDEFINE Examples SQL> def x DEFINE X = "7500" (CHAR)
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SQL> def DEFINE _DATE = "25-SEP-2004" (CHAR) DEFINE _CONNECT_IDENTIFIER = "orcl" (CHAR) DEFINE _USER = "BOOK" (CHAR) DEFINE _PRIVILEGE = "" (CHAR) DEFINE _SQLPLUS_RELEASE = "1001000200" (CHAR) DEFINE _EDITOR = "vim" (CHAR) DEFINE _O_VERSION = "Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.1.0.2.0 - Production With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options" (CHAR) DEFINE _O_RELEASE = "1001000200" (CHAR) DEFINE X = "7500" (CHAR) SQL> undefine x SQL>
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Implicit SQL*Plus User-Defined Variables
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SQL*Plus also supports syntax allowing you to define variables implicitly. With this method, you start with substitution variables in your SQL and SQL*Plus commands, and you end up with user-defined variables; SQL*Plus prompts for a value only once. You can implement this behavior by using double
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ampersands (&&). Look at the experiments in Listing 11-9, showing that you start out without an ENR variable, you are prompted for a value only once, and then an implicit DEFINE is executed. Listing 11-9. Using Double Ampersands (&&) SQL> define enr SP2-0135: symbol enr is UNDEFINED SQL> select * from employees 2 where empno between &&enr and &enr+100; Enter value for enr: 7500 EMPNO ----7521 7566 ENAME -------WARD JONES INIT ----TF JM JOB MGR BDATE MSAL COMM DEPTNO -------- ----- ----------- ----- ----- -----SALESREP 7698 22-FEB-1962 1250 500 30 MANAGER 7839 02-APR-1967 2975 20 = "7500" (CHAR)
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SQL> define enr DEFINE ENR SQL>
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If you now re-execute the contents of the SQL buffer (with / or RUN), there is no prompting at all; the stored ENR value (7500) is used. So if you use this technique, make sure to end (or start) your scripts with the appropriate UNDEFINE commands.
User-Friendly Prompting
SQL*Plus provides a more user-friendly method to create user-defined variables and prompt for values, while offering some more control over the values as well. This method is especially useful with SQL*Plus scripts (discussed in Section 11.3). User-friendly prompting uses a combination of the three SQL*Plus commands: PROMPT, PAUSE, and ACCEPT. Listing 11-10 shows an example. Note that you can split a SQL*Plus command over multiple lines, as shown in Listing 11-10 in the ACCEPT command example. Normally, the newline character is a SQL*Plus command delimiter, but you can escape from that special meaning of the newline character by ending your command lines with a minus sign (-). Listing 11-10. Using PROMPT, PAUSE, and ACCEPT SQL> prompt This is a demonstration. This is a demonstration. SQL> pause Hit the [Enter] key... Hit the [Enter] key... SQL> accept x number > prompt "Please enter a value for x: " Please enter a value for x: 42
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