vb.net 2d barcode dll Which SQL Multiset Operators Are Available in Java

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Which SQL Multiset Operators Are Available
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If you are using nested tables in your table design, you can apply various SQL multiset operators against those tables. Multiset operators allow you to compare nested tables, check certain nested table properties, or derive new nested tables from existing ones.
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Note The SQL language refers to multisets to indicate a rather important difference between these sets and regular sets. In mathematics, duplicate elements in sets are meaningless. In SQL, multisets may have meaningful duplicates; that is, you cannot ignore duplicates in multisets.
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Table 12-1 shows an overview of the Oracle multiset operators. Note that these multiset operators are also part of the ANSI/ISO SQL standard. For completeness, Table 12-1 not only shows the SQL multiset operators, but also some other operations you can apply to nested tables. Table 12-1. SQL Multiset Operators and Functions
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Multiset Operator or Function
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nt1 MULTISET EXCEPT [DISTINCT] nt2
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Description
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The difference of nt1 and nt2 (equivalent with the MINUS set operator) The intersection of nt1 and nt2 The union of nt1 and nt2 The number of rows in nt Boolean function to check whether nt is empty Boolean function to check whether nt contains duplicates Remove duplicates from nt Check whether nt1 and nt2 are equal
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nt1 MULTISET INTERSECT [DISTINCT] nt2 nt1 MULTISET UNION [DISTINCT] nt2 CARDINALITY(nt) nt IS [NOT] EMPTY nt IS [NOT] A SET SET(nt) nt1 = nt2
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OBJECT-RELATIONAL FEATURES
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nt1 IN (nt2, nt3, ...) nt1 [NOT] SUBMULTISET OF nt2 r [NOT] MEMBER OF nt CAST(COLLECT(col)) POWERMULTISET(nt) POWERMULTISET_BY_CARDINALITY(nt,c)
Check whether nt1 occurs in a list of nested tables Is nt1 a subset of nt2 Does row r occur in table nt Produce a nested table based on column col The set of all nonempty subsets of nt The set of all nonempty subsets of nt with cardinality c
The following sections show a few typical examples of using multiset operators and functions. See the Oracle SQL Reference documentation for examples of all these operators and functions.
Preparing for the Examples
In Section 12.3 of this chapter, you learned how you can store errata entries for courses in a nested table. In Listing 12-10, we inserted only a single erratum. In Listing 12-15, we insert some more rows into the ERRATA nested table. Listing 12-15. Inserting Some More Errata Rows insert into table ( select errata from c where code = 'SQL' ) values ('SQL' , 3 , 46 ,'Layout illustration' ); insert into table ( select errata from c where code = 'SQL' ) values ('SQL' , 5 , 1 ,'Introduction missing.' ); insert into table ( select errata from c where code = 'XML' ) values ('XML' , 5 , 1 , 'Introduction missing.' );
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insert into table ( select errata from c where code = 'XML' ) values ('XML' , 7 , 3 ,'Line 5: "succeeds" should read "fails"' ); Now we have five errata entries in total: three for the SQL course and two for the XML course. If you execute a regular query against the C table and select its ERRATA column without using any modifying functions, the structure of the ERRATA column (with the nested table) becomes clear from the query result, as shown in Listing 12-16. Listing 12-16. Querying a Nested Table Without Using Modifying Functions col errata format a80 word select errata from c where code = 'SQL'; ERRATA(CODE, CH, PG, TXT) ---------------------------------------------------------------------ERRATA_TAB_T(ERRATUM_T('SQL', 7, 45, 'Typo in last line.'), ERRATUM_T('SQL', 3, 46, 'Layout illustration'), ERRATUM_T('SQL', 5, 1, 'Introduction missing.'))
Note The query output in Listing 12-16 is formatted for readability.
The query result in Listing 12-16 consists of only a single row with a single column. In other words, you are looking at a complicated but single value. If you interpret that single value inside out, you see that the ERRATUM_T constructor function (or method) appears three times to build individual erratum entries. These three erratum entries, in turn, are elements in a comma-separated list. The ERRATA_TAB_T constructor function takes that comma-separated errata list as an argument to convert it into a nested table.
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