create barcode using vb.net INTRODUCTION TO SQL, SQL*PLUS, AND SQL DEVELOPER in Java

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INTRODUCTION TO SQL, SQL*PLUS, AND SQL DEVELOPER
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Figure 2-2. A SQL set operators syntax diagram
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SQL offers several commands to implement data security and to restrict data access. First of all, access to the database must be defined. User authorization is implemented by providing database users a login name and a password, together with some database-wide privileges. These are the most important commands in this area: CREATE USER, to define new database users ALTER USER, to change properties (privileges and passwords) of existing database users DROP USER, to remove user definitions from the database
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Privileges and Roles
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If users are authorized to access the database, you can implement fine-grained data access by granting specific privileges. The Oracle DBMS offers two types of privileges: system privileges and object privileges. System privileges pertain to the right to perform certain (nonobject-related) actions; for example, you can have the CREATE SESSION privilege (allows you to log on to the database) and the CREATE TABLE privilege. Oracle supports approximately 140 different system privileges. Object privileges involve the right to access a specific database object in a specific way; for example, the right to issue SELECT, INSERT, and UPDATE commands against the EMPLOYEES table. Table 2-2 lists the most important Oracle object privileges.
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Note Granting and revoking system privileges is typically a task for database administrators. See Oracle SQL Reference, part of the official documentation set for the Oracle Database, for more details on both system and object privileges.
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INTRODUCTION TO SQL, SQL*PLUS, AND SQL DEVELOPER
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Table 2-2. Important Oracle Object Privileges
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ALTER DELETE EXECUTE FLASHBACK INDEX INSERT REFERENCES SELECT UPDATE
Allowable Action
Change the table structure (with ALTER TABLE) Delete rows Execute stored functions or procedures Go back in time (with FLASHBACK TABLE) Create indexes on the table Insert new rows Create foreign key constraints to the table Query the table (or view) Change column values of existing rows
The Oracle DBMS allows you to group privileges into roles. Roles make user management much easier, more flexible, and also more manageable. The following are the corresponding SQL commands used to administer these privileges and roles: GRANT, to grant certain privileges or roles to users or roles REVOKE, to revoke certain privileges or roles from users or roles
A typical scenario is the following: CREATE ROLE <role name> GRANT privileges TO <role name> GRANT <role name> TO user(s) The first step creates a new (empty) role. The second step (which can be repeated as many times as you like) populates the role with a mix of object and system privileges. The third step grants the role (and thereby all its privileges) to a user in a single step. Roles have several useful and powerful properties: Roles are dynamic; further changes to the role contents automatically affect all users previously granted that role. Roles can be enabled or disabled during a session. You can protect roles with a password. In that case, only users who know the role password can enable the role. The most important advantage of roles is their manageability.
INTRODUCTION TO SQL, SQL*PLUS, AND SQL DEVELOPER
GRANT and REVOKE
Each table has an owner, the user who created the table. Table owners are able to grant privileges on their tables to other database users using the GRANT command. As soon as you create a table, you implicitly get all object privileges on that table, WITH GRANT OPTION, as illustrated in Figure 2-3, which shows the syntax of the GRANT command.
Note System privileges and roles are not considered in Figure 2-3, so the syntax diagram is incomplete.
Figure 2-3. The GRANT command syntax diagram Here are some comments about the GRANT command: Table owners cannot grant the right to remove a table (DROP TABLE) to other database users. Note, however, that Oracle supports a (rather dangerous) DROP ANY TABLE system privilege. If you want to grant all object privileges to someone else, you can use the keyword ALL (see Figure 2-3). (Instead of ALL PRIVILEGES, the Oracle DBMS also allows you to specify ALL.) With a single GRANT command, you can grant privileges to a single user, a list of users, a role, or all database users. You can address all database users with the pseudo-user PUBLIC (see Figure 2-3). The UPDATE privilege supports an optional refinement: this privilege can also be granted for specific columns, by specifying column names between parentheses. In principle, there is no difference between tables and views when granting object privileges; however, the privileges ALTER, INDEX, and REFERENCES are meaningless in the context of views. The GRANT OPTION not only grants certain object privileges, but also grants the right to the grantee to spread these privileges further.
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