c# barcode image generation library INTRODUCTION TO SQL, SQL*PLUS, AND SQL DEVELOPER in Java

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INTRODUCTION TO SQL, SQL*PLUS, AND SQL DEVELOPER
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The counterpart of GRANT is the REVOKE command. Figure 2-4 shows the syntax diagram for REVOKE.
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Figure 2-4. The REVOKE command syntax diagram Besides the two standard SQL commands mentioned in this section (GRANT and REVOKE), Oracle supports several additional commands in the security and data access area; for example, to influence the locking behavior of the DBMS, to implement auditing, and to set up more detailed user authorization.
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2.2 Basic SQL Concepts and Terminology
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This section discusses the following topics: Constants (literals) Variables Operators, operands, conditions, and expressions Functions Database object names Comments Reserved words
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Constants (Literals)
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A constant (or literal) is something with a fixed value. We distinguish numbers (numeric constants) and text (alphanumeric constants). In database jargon, alphanumeric constants are also referred to as strings. In the SQL language, alphanumeric constants (strings) must be placed between single quotation marks (quotes). Numbers are also relatively straightforward in SQL; however, don t put them between quotes or they will be interpreted as strings. If you like, you can explicitly indicate that you want SQL to interpret numeric values as floating point numbers by adding the suffixes f or d to indicate single (float) or double precision, respectively. Be careful with the decimal period and group separators ( (commas) in
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INTRODUCTION TO SQL, SQL*PLUS, AND SQL DEVELOPER
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numbers, because the correct interpretation of these characters depends on the value of a session parameter (NLS_NUMERIC_CHARACTERS), and there are some cultural differences in this area. In SQL, dates and time durations (intervals) are special cases. They are typically specified and represented as alphanumeric constants, but they need something else to distinguish them from regular strings. In other words, you must help the DBMS to interpret the strings correctly as date or time-interval constants. Probably the most straightforward (and elegant) method is to prefix the strings with a keyword (DATE, TIMESTAMP, or INTERVAL) and to adhere to a well-defined notation convention. (See the examples in Table 2-3 and the third option in the following list.) These are the three options to specify date and time-related constants in SQL: Specify them as alphanumeric constants (strings) and rely on implicit interpretation and conversion by the Oracle DBMS. This is dangerous, because things can go wrong if the actual format parameter for that session is different from the format of the string. Specify them as alphanumeric constants (strings) and use a CAST or TO_DATE conversion function to specify explicitly how the strings must be interpreted (see 5). Specify them as alphanumeric constants (strings), prefixed with DATE, TIMESTAMP, or INTERVAL. If you use INTERVAL, you also need a suffix to indicate a dimension, such as DAY, MONTH, or YEAR.
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Table 2-3 shows examples of using SQL constants. Table 2-3. Examples of SQL Constants (Literals)
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Type
Numeric
Example
42 8.75 8.75F 132 'JOneS' 'GEN' '132' DATE '2004-02-09' TIMESTAMP '2004-09-05 11.42.59.00000' INTERVAL '2' SECOND INTERVAL '1-3' YEAR TO MONTH
Alphanumeric
Dates and intervals
Note the subtle difference between 132 and '132'. The difference between numbers and strings becomes apparent when considering the operators they support. For example, numbers can be added or multiplied, but you cannot do that with strings. The only operator you can apply to strings is the concatenation operator. In general, the SQL language is case-insensitive. However, there is one important exception: alphanumeric constants (strings) are case-sensitive. For example, 'JOneS' is not equal to 'Jones'. This is sometimes the explanation of getting the message no rows selected in cases where you were expecting to see rows in the result.
INTRODUCTION TO SQL, SQL*PLUS, AND SQL DEVELOPER
Variables
A variable is something that may have a varying value over time, or even an unknown value. A variable always has a name, so you can refer to it. SQL supports two types of variables: Column name variables: The name of a column stays the same, but its value typically varies from row to row while scanning a table. System variables: These have nothing to do with tables; nevertheless, they can play an important role in SQL. They are commonly referred to as pseudo columns. See Table 2-4 for some examples of Oracle system variables.
Table 2-4. Examples of Oracle System Variables (Pseudo columns)
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