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4.3 The WHERE Clause
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With the WHERE clause, you can specify a condition to filter the rows for the result. We distinguish simple and compound conditions. Simple conditions typically contain one of the SQL comparison operators listed in Table 4-2. Table 4-2. SQL Comparison Operators
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< <= > >= = <>
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Less than Less than or equal to Greater than Greater than or equal to Equal to Not equal to (alternative syntax: !=)
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Expressions containing comparison operators constitute statements that can evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. At least, that s how things are in mathematics (logic), as well as in our intuition. (In Section 4.9,
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RETRIEVAL: THE BASICS
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you will see that null values make things slightly more complicated in SQL, but for the moment, we won t worry about them.) Listing 4-11 shows an example of a WHERE clause with a simple condition. Listing 4-11. A WHERE Clause with a Simple Condition select ename, init, msal from employees where msal >= 3000; ENAME -------SCOTT KING FORD INIT MSAL ----- -------SCJ 3000 CC 5000 MG 3000
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Listing 4-12 shows another example of a WHERE clause with a simple condition, this time using the <> (not equal to) operator. Listing 4-12. Another Example of a WHERE Clause with a Simple Condition select dname, location from departments where location <> 'CHICAGO'; DNAME ---------ACCOUNTING TRAINING HR LOCATION -------NEW YORK DALLAS BOSTON
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Compound conditions consist of multiple subconditions, combined with logical operators. In Section 4.5 of this chapter, you will see how to construct compound conditions by using the logical operators AND, OR, and NOT.
4.4 The ORDER BY Clause
The result of a query is a table; that is, a set of rows. The order in which these rows appear in the result typically depends on two aspects: The strategy chosen by the optimizer to access the data The operations chosen by the optimizer to produce the desired result
This means that it is sometimes difficult to predict the order of the rows in the result. In any case, the order is not guaranteed to be the same under all circumstances. If you insist on getting the resulting rows of your query back in a guaranteed order, you must use the ORDER BY clause in your SELECT commands. Figure 4-2 shows the syntax of this clause.
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Figure 4-2. ORDER BY clause syntax diagram As Figure 4-2 shows, you can specify multiple sort specifications, separated by commas. Each sort specification consists of a column specification (or column expression), optionally followed by keyword DESC (descending), in case you want to sort in descending order. Without this addition, the default sorting order is ASC (ascending). ASC is underlined in Figure 4-2 to denote that it is the default. The column specification may consist of a single column name or a column expression. To refer to columns in the ORDER BY clause, you can use any of the following: Regular column names Column aliases defined in the SELECT clause (especially useful in case of complex expressions in the SELECT clause) Column ordinal numbers
Column ordinal numbers in the ORDER BY clause have no relationship with the order of the columns in the database; they are dependent on only the SELECT clause of your query. Try to avoid using ordinal numbers in the ORDER BY clause. Using column aliases instead increases SQL statement readability, and your ORDER BY clauses also become independent of the SELECT clauses of your queries. Listing 4-13 shows how you can sort query results on column combinations. As you can see, the query result is sorted on department number, and then on employee name for each department. Listing 4-13. Sorting Results with ORDER BY select from where order deptno, ename, init, msal employees msal < 1500 by deptno, ename; ENAME -------MILLER ADAMS SMITH JONES MARTIN WARD INIT MSAL ---- -------TJA 1300 AA 1100 N 800 R 800 P 1250 TF 1250
DEPTNO -------10 20 20 30 30 30
Listing 4-14 shows how you can reverse the default sorting order by adding the DESC keyword to your ORDER BY clause.
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