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RETRIEVAL: FUNCTIONS
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Listing 5-1. Using the ROUND, CEIL, and FLOOR Functions select round(345.678, 0), ceil(345.678), floor(345.678) from dual; ROUND(345.678) CEIL(345.678) FLOOR(345.678) -------------- ------------- -------------346 346 345 select , , from round(345.678, 2) round(345.678,-1) round(345.678,-2) dual;
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ROUND(345.678,2) ROUND(345.678,-1) ROUND(345.678,-2) ---------------- ----------------- ----------------345.68 350 300 Listing 5-2. Using the ABS and SIGN Functions select abs(-123), abs(0), abs(456) , sign(-123), sign(0), sign(456) from dual; ABS(-123) ABS(0) ABS(456) SIGN(-123) SIGN(0) SIGN(456) --------- -------- -------- ---------- -------- --------123 0 456 -1 0 1
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Listing 5-3. Using the POWER and MOD Functions select power(2,3), power(-2,3) , mod(8,3), mod(13,0) from dual; POWER(2,3) POWER(-2,3) MOD(8,3) MOD(13,0) ---------- ----------- -------- --------8 -8 2 13
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Listing 5-4. Using MOD in the WHERE Clause select , from where empno as odd_empno ename employees mod(empno,2) = 1;
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ODD_EMPNO --------7369 7499 7521 7839
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ENAME -------SMITH ALLEN WARD KING
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The example in Listing 5-5 calculates the age (expressed in weeks and additional days) of all employees working for department 10. In this example, we use the difference between the BDATE column and the pseudo column Sysdate. Of course, your results will be different from the results in Listing 5-5, because they depend on the point in time that you execute the query. Listing 5-5. Using the FLOOR and MOD Functions select , , from where ename floor((sysdate-bdate)/7) as weeks floor(mod(sysdate-bdate,7)) as days employees deptno = 10;
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ENAME WEEKS DAYS -------- -------- -------CLARK 2032 5 KING 2688 0 MILLER 2208 6 Listing 5-6 shows an example using the arithmetic functions SIN, TANH, EXP, LOG, and LN. You probably recognize the number 3.14159265 as an approximation of (pi), which is used in the SIN function example to convert degrees into radians. Listing 5-6. Trigonometric, Exponential, and Logarithmic Functions select sin(30*3.14159265/180), tanh(0.5) , exp(4), log(2,32), ln(32) from dual; SIN(30*3.14159265/180) TANH(0.5) EXP(4) LOG(2,32) LN(32) ---------------------- --------- -------- --------- -------.5 .4621172 54.59815 5 3.465736
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5.3 Text Functions
The most important Oracle text functions are listed in Table 5-3.
RETRIEVAL: FUNCTIONS
Table 5-3. Common Oracle Text Functions
Function
LENGTH(t) ASCII(t) CHR(n) UPPER(t), LOWER(t) INITCAP(t) LTRIM(t[,k]) RTRIM(t[,k]) TRIM([[option][c FROM]]t) LPAD(t,n[,k]) RPAD(t,n[,k]) SUBSTR(t,n[,m])
Description
Length (expressed in characters) of t ASCII value of first character of t Character with ASCII value n t in uppercase/lowercase Each word in t with initial uppercase; remainder in lowercase Remove characters from the left of t, until the first character not in k Remove characters from the right of t, after the last character not in k Trim character c from t; option = LEADING, TRAILING, or BOTH Left-pad t with sequence of characters in k to length n Right-pad t with k to length n (the default k is a space) Substring of t from position n, m characters long (the default for m is until end) Position of the first occurrence of k in t Same as INSTR(t,k), but starting from position n in t Same as INSTR(t,k,n), but now the mth occurrence of k Replace characters from v (occurring in t) by corresponding character in w Remove each occurrence of v from t Replace each occurrence of v in t by w Concatenate t1 and t2 (equivalent to the || operator)
INSTR(t,k) INSTR(t,k,n) INSTR(t,k,n,m) TRANSLATE(t,v,w) REPLACE(t,v) REPLACE(t,v,w) CONCAT(t1,t2)
Note When counting positions in strings, always start with one, not with zero.
RETRIEVAL: FUNCTIONS
Several text functions have a corresponding function with a B suffix, such as SUBSTRB, INSTRB, and LENGTHB. These special functions express their results in bytes instead of characters. This distinction is relevant only if you are using multibyte character sets. See Oracle SQL Reference for more details. Listing 5-7 shows some examples of the LOWER, UPPER, INITCAP, and LENGTH text functions; the results are self-explanatory. Listing 5-7. Using the lower, UPPER, initcap, and LENGTH Functions select from where order lower(job), initcap(ename) employees upper(job) = 'SALESREP' by length(ename); INITCAP(ENAME) -------------Ward Allen Martin Turner
LOWER(JOB) ---------salesrep salesrep salesrep salesrep
Listing 5-8 illustrates the text functions ascii and CHR. If you compare the third and the fifth columns of the result, you can see that the ascii function considers only the first character of its argument, regardless of the length of the input text (see Table 5-3 for the description of the ASCII text function). Listing 5-8. Using the ASCII and CHR Functions select , , from ascii('a'), ascii('z') ascii('A'), ascii('Z') ascii('ABC'), chr(77) dual;
ASCII('A') ASCII('Z') ASCII('A') ASCII('Z') ASCII('ABC') CHR(77) ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ------97 122 65 90 65 M The first two column headings in Listing 5-8 are very confusing, because SQL*Plus converts all SELECT clause expressions to uppercase, including your function arguments. If you want lowercase characters in your column headings, you must add column aliases and specify them between double quotes. For example, the first line of Listing 5-8 would look like this: select ascii('a') as "ASCII('a')", ascii('z') as "ASCII('z')" Listings 5-9 and 5-10 show some self-explanatory examples of using the INSTR, SUBSTR, LTRIM, and RTRIM text functions. (The layout in Listing 5-9 is formatted to increase readability.)
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