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Reductions of convenience classes and methods The size of the CLDC is further reduced by eliminating classes that developers, if needed, could recreate. ThreadGroup is one such example since it is essentially a collection of Threads. Developers could create a crude version of ThreadGroup using a Vector, for example. Methods were removed in cases where multiple method signatures were introduced for convenience. For example, in J2SE, the String class defines the methods equals(String) and equalsIgnoreCase(String). This functionality can be accomplished by executing either the toLowerCase() or toUpperCase() method (which are both present in the CLDC) on each string before performing equals(String). Furthermore, there are some classes and methods that do not apply to the CLDC. The java.io.File class is an example. The CLDC environment does not directly support the concept of a file system. This is because many of the devices that the CLDC targets do not have a file system. Instead, the CLDC relies on the storage facility of the device itself. These storage facilities are highly device-specific and are left for the profiles to define. Often devices in the CLDC space have nothing more than simple byte arrays for persistent storage. Other reductions Features such as finalization and weak references have been removed from the CLDC primarily because these features are not fully utilized or necessary. Finalization is intended to be used to clean up resources used by a particular object upon garbage collection. In practice, however, relying on finalization to clean up after objects is unreliable and can become dangerous. Finalization is linked to garbage collection. An object s finalize() method runs just prior to the object being freed from memory. Garbage collection is non-deterministic. We never know when or if it is going to run. Even when garbage collection is explicitly requested using System.gc(), the garbage collector does not immediately run. The call to System.gc() simply requests garbage collection as soon as possible. This may never occur if other threads take priority. As a result, a resource such as a database connection or an I/O stream will be tied up as the object that used the resource awaits garbage collection. Furthermore, by default in the J2SE environment, finalization does not occur during the virtual machine shutdown process. Thus, object finalization may never occur for an object. Since this feature is unreliable and should be avoided in the J2SE environment it did not make sense to include it in the CLDC environment. 2.3.2 The Kilobyte Virtual Machine (KVM) The KVM adheres to the Java Virtual Machine Specification (Lindholm and Yellin) as much as possible. However, the capabilities of the KVM are defined by and large by the CLDC specification. The KVM differs from the Java Virtual Machine Specification only when the CLDC requires or allows this to happen for optimization or API support 27
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reasons. For example, often float and double are not supported by devices in the CLDC space. As a result, the creators of the CLDC decided that these data types were too expensive to implement on devices that, for the most part, do not support them. As a result, float and double are not supported by the CLDC and are not recognized by the KVM. The KVM requires a small footprint on the device, between 40kB and 80kB depending on compile options and the target platform. This allows the KVM to run on devices with as little as 128kB of total memory. The KVM was developed from the ground up in C and is designed to be as complete and fast as possible, running at 30% to 80% the speed of the standard JVM, without a JIT (just-in-time compiler). The KVM reference implementation that is provided with the CLDC is NOTE just one implementation of a CLDC-compliant virtual machine. Equipment manufacturers have the option to port the KVM to their devices or to build their own virtual machine that supports the CLDC specification. Class file verification The standard Java virtual machines perform a process at runtime called class file verification. This process occurs before loading any class into memory in order to ensure both that the class is a valid Java class file and that it is considered to be well-behaved, in that it does not attempt to access memory outside of its defined namespace, does not replace any of the core java.* and javax.* packages, and so forth. Class file verification plays an important role in the Java security model. In terms of CLDC devices, class file verification tends to be a rather resource-intensive operation and uses a significant amount of processing power, memory, and binary code space. As a result, the KVM defines class file verification differently than the standard Java Virtual Machines. In order to reduce the KVM footprint, much of the class file verification process takes place outside the KVM and off of the device. Before the class is deployed to a device the class is modified by a preverify utility. The preverify utility modifies the class file generated by the javac compiler, adding byte codes that identify the class as a valid, verified class file. At runtime the KVM checks for these flags. If the flags are not present or do not contain the correct information, the class loading process is aborted, which results in an exception being thrown. 2.3.3 Connected Device Configuration (CDC) The CDC is the second of the two configurations currently defined within J2ME, and it addresses devices and network appliances with more resources than CLDC devices. The CDC runs on a C-Virtual Machine (CVM) that is fully compliant with the Java Virtual Machine Specification. The CDC profile targets devices with as little as 512kB of memory; however, it is designed for platforms with about 2 MB of available memory. Typically, the devices in this category have substantial processing power, they often can be plugged into the wall, and they support rich networking capabilities such as high-bandwidth connections and high-fidelity Web content.
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