Command line results from running MsgClient and MsgListener. in Java

Drawing QR Code 2d barcode in Java Command line results from running MsgClient and MsgListener.

Command line results from running MsgClient and MsgListener.
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SOCKET-BASED CONNECTIONS
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Datagrams are designed for sending packets of data over a network. Datagrams work much differently than sockets in that a hard connection is not established between the two systems. In the case of sockets, if a client tries to connect to a system that does not support sockets or is not listening for socket connections, an exception is thrown. Datagrams, on the other hand, allow data to be sent over a connection regardless of whether the listener on the other end is capable of handling datagrams or even exists. In all cases, when sending data using Datagrams, the transmission is assumed to be successful. Furthermore, unlike sockets, the data sent using Datagrams is considered to be unreliable in that if a packet is lost it is not resent automatically by the protocol implementation, and when multiple packets are sent there is no guarantee that the packets will arrive in the same order they were sent. Datagrams do not provide support for reassembling data packets into the order in which they were sent. For these reasons, Datagrams are termed to be an unreliable data transport mechanism. The term unreliable in this case is not necessarily a negative term. It simply means that the protocol does not inherently support mechanisms to guarantee that data arrives in the order it was sent or that the data arrives at all. There is nothing stopping an application from implementing these features itself, however. So why use Datagrams Speed is one primary reason. Datagrams do not incur the overhead of ensuring that packets arrive in the correct order or that they arrive at all. In some applications, such as audio streaming, a missing data packet may appear as static. Raw speed is more important in this case than data integrity. There are several datagram protocols available. The most common is User Datagram Protocol (UDP). This is the protocol implementation provided by the reference implementation of the Generic Connection Framework. However, the Datagram and DatagramConnection interfaces of the Generic Connection Framework are designed to allow implementations of different types of datagram protocols. Other such protocols include IP and WDP along with proprietary beaming protocols that take advantage of the packet nature of datagrams for transmitting data. When to use datagrams At first glance, datagrams seem to have a lot of marks against their use, especially since there is no reliability of data delivery, flow-control and error handling. However, the raw speed benefits of datagrams may outweigh the data integrity issues for some applications. Applications that stream real-time audio or video may be more concerned with speed than getting every byte of data transported and in a certain order. If data is missing there may be some static over the speaker or on the screen momentarily. Although static is not a desirable feature in such applications, the alternative would require the application to wait for all the data to arrive and to place it into the correct receiving order based on how the packets were sent before the data could be
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C H A P T ER 13
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officially received. This speed degradation is likely to be unacceptable in applications that are streaming audio or video content. Since UDP does not provide guarantees of packet delivery or packet receiving order, the headers and metadata required are simpler than a reliable protocol such as TCP. Therefore, datagrams are most useful when speed of delivery is crucial. In the J2ME environment, datagrams can be useful due to their simplicity as a lighter weight data transport alternative to TCP. For example, datagrams might be useful when beaming data over an Ir port between two devices. Another feature of datagrams is that the programmer controls the packet size of the transmission. If you want to send a large amount of data in a single packet, you can (up to 64kB). If you want to send a single byte in a packet, you can. Handling datagram unreliability Although UDP datagrams do not inherently provide guaranteed delivery and packet reordering, you can implement this at the application level. For example, a client that sends a datagram and does not receive a response for a specified period of time could assume the packet was not received and try to resend the information or indicate an error. Furthermore, the data encapsulated by the datagram could include tags indicating how to reassemble the data on the receiving side. For example, if the first packet received contains the information packet 4 of 7 the receiver would understand it needs 7 packets in all before attempting to order the data. If less than 7 packets are received and a certain amount of time passed without receiving another packet, the receiver could ask the sender to resend the missing packets. Alternatively, a client could send packets one at a time and wait for the receiver to respond with a success code indicating that the packet was correctly received before sending the next packet. Of course in doing this the sender and receiver need to understand how to communicate. In other words, you need to define your own protocol. This does not mean, however, that you are duplicating the functionality of TCP and eliminating the benefits of datagrams. Obviously, there will be some additional overhead in providing flow-control and data delivery error handling in datagrams. However, a custom protocol has the advantage of accommodating a specific case, rather than the more generalized case that TCP is required to address, and this specificity can improve efficiency. If you are working in a closed system, where you have control of both the sender and the receiver, you also have the ability to define how the sender and receiver communicate. How datagrams work in J2ME Datagrams have been generalized in the Generic Connection Framework so that different types of datagram connections can be used. As a result, the datagram API is much different in J2ME than in J2SE. The two classes involved with datagrams in the Generic Connection Framework are DatagramConnection and Datagram. The DatagramConnection class is DATAGRAM-BASED CONNECTIONS 395
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used to bind the application to a port and the Datagram class is used to transport data over this port connection. It is important to understand that datagrams do not behave like streams. Although the datagram is ultimately sent across the network connection in some fashion, datagrams themselves are packets of data placed onto the protocol as a whole. The difference is that with a stream, each byte written to a stream immediately becomes part of the stream and is sent to whatever the stream is hooked up to, assuming there is no buffering taking place. With datagrams, all of the data resides in the datagram buffer until the datagram is placed on the DatagramConnection. Once the datagram is placed on the connection, the connection transmits the data to the specified target.
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