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HANDLING USER INTERACTIONS IN MIDP
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Using the low-level event API Since our tutorial application is not a game or similar application requiring a lot of user key pad interaction, we will demonstrate how the low-level event handling works with the ChartCanvas object through simple output stream print lines (System.out.println). This will not add any real customer functionality to our application, but it should give you a feel for how the low-level event handling is accomplished. All we need to do to see low-level key events in action is to add a single method to the ChartCanvas class.
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protected void keyReleased(int keyCode) { System.out.println("Key released is ->:" + getKeyName(keyCode)); if (keyCode == KEY_NUM1) { System.out.println("#1 Key released."); } }
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This method simply sends a message indicating what key has been released to the system s output stream. It checks for when the 1 key has been released and prints a special message to the same stream. Notice that no code is required to register anything with the Canvas object. In fact, these are callback methods that come with the Canvas class. The preceding code overrides the default and empty implementation callback methods in the Canvas class. When the Canvas object is displayed and keys are pressed while it is displayed, the output in the designated system output stream should look like the following:
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Key released is ->:4 Key released is ->:5 Key released is ->:6 Key released is ->:3 Key released is ->:2 Key released is ->:1 #1 Key released. Key released is ->:7 Key released is ->:8 Key released is ->:9
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While our application does not really require that we react specially to these keys when the chart is displayed in the canvas, they most certainly could be used to provide a more dynamic display. For example, certain actions such as zoom in and zoom out, or requesting to see the next stored quote in the database could all be assigned to different keys on the key pad. Then the application would simply have to provide the appropriate event handling if one of these keys gets pressed.
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So our MIDP application works on a cell phone. But what happened to our requirement that said it must also work on a two-way pager In our design of the applications, we said that our MIDlets should work on the cell phone, two-way pager, and some
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MIDP USER INTERFACE
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PDAs. How much work is left to get this application working for a pager The answer is zero! By using MIDP, we have simultaneously developed an application that will also run on any MIDP-compliant two-way pager or other device. Because of the device s latitude in MIDP implementation, the user interface may look and behave a little differently. Otherwise, the MIDlets should operate identically as they do in our cell phone. After successfully deploying our MIDlets to the two-way pager, we should see results that look similar to the pictures running in our pager emulator in figure 5.31.
Figure 5.31 The same ObtainQuoteMIDlet as seen on a pager emulator. Because the screen is of different dimensions, the layout of the various high-level user interface elements may be a little different. However these elements still behave as they did on the cell phone.
Great! you say, but what about the PDA There is a profile, namely the PDA Profile, dedicated to providing user interface and persistent storage to PDAs much in the way MIDP has brought this functionality to the cell phones and pagers. This profile is not yet available. In chapters 8-10, we look at the KJava API for delivering Java applications in the CLDC and special API built for the Palm OS. However, Sun has also taken the MIDP and extended it for use in certain PDA devices. Currently, there is an implementation available for devices running the Palm OS. This extension is called MIDP for Palm OS and it is available from Sun at: http://java.sun.com/products/midp4palm. This implementation includes a J2ME virtual machine for the Palm OS device in a single Palm PRC files, namely MIDP.prc. The PRC file can be loaded to the device with a synchronization program (see chapter 8). With the PRC VM loaded on the device running Palm OS, the device is ready to run MIDP applications. In the release of MIDP for Palm devices, Sun has provided a desktop tool to convert a MIDlet .jar file associated with the MIDP development into a PRC file that runs on a Palm device. The tool is called the PRC Converter Tool and it is a Java application. A batch file, converter.bat, has been provided to start the converter tool with Java. The tool should look similar to the picture in figure 5.31. The Converter Tool .jar file and converter.bat are installed in a \Converter directory off of the directory where the MIDP for Palm OS download was installed. MIDLETS ON OTHER DEVICES 131
The tool makes use of the current MIDlet JAD file. To convert a MIDlet suite into a Palm OS PRC, simply open the QuoteMIDletSuite.jad file and request that the tool convert the application (see figure 5.32).
Figure 5.32 Running converter.bat starts Sun s MIDP for the Palm OS Converter Tool. This tool allows a MIDlet suite to be converted to a PRC file which can be executed on a Palm OS device.
The tool should indicate if there was success or a problem during the conversion. The MIDlet suite PRC must also be loaded onto the device with a synchronization program. You will learn more about where to get an emulator and how to deploy PRCs to a Palm OS device in chapters 8 and 9. When the MIDlet suite PRC is moved to the device, an icon representing the application should appear on the device as depicted in figure 5.33. The JavaHQ is the virtual machine PRC.
Figure 5.33 In order to generate a Palm OS PRC file, the QuoteMIDletSuite s jad file must be found and chosen in this screen. This JAD chooser is displayed when you request to open a file from the PRC Converter Tool as shown.
When the QuoteMIDlet icon is selected (or tapped as is the term used when selecting a user interface item with the device pointer), the familiar ObtainQuote and RetrieveQuote options are presented, albeit in a different format. While the arrangement and presentation of the displays and items may look a little different, all the pieces and functionality from the original MIDlets are there, right down to the advertising ticker in our alert. 132
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