.net barcode generator Advantages of Subnetting in Visual Studio .NET

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Advantages of Subnetting
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Subnetting is often used to accommodate a divided physical topology or to restrict broadcast traffic on a network. Other advantages of subnetting include improved secu rity (by restricting unauthorized traffic behind routers) and simplified administration (by delegating control of subnets to other departments or administrators). Accommodating Physical Topology Suppose you are designing a campus network with 200 hosts spread over four buildings Voter Hall, Twilight Hall, Monroe Hall, and Sunderland Hall. You want each of these four buildings to include 50 hosts. If your ISP has allocated to you the Class C network 208.147.66.0, you can use the addresses 208.147.66.1 208.147.66.254 for your 200 hosts. However, because these
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Understanding TCP/IP
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hosts are distributed among four physically separate locations, these hosts are not all able to communicate with each other by means of a local network broadcast. By extending the subnet mask and borrowing 2 bits from the host ID portion of your address space, you can divide the network into four logical subnets. You can then use a router to connect the four physical networks. Figure 2-9 illustrates this scenario.
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208.147.66.0/26 Subnet ID (in binary):00
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Voter Hall
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208.147.66.64/26 Subnet ID (in binary):01
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208.147.66.128/26 Subnet ID (in binary):10
Twilight Hall
Monroe Hall
Sunderland Hall
208.147.66.192/26 Subnet ID (in binary):11
Figure 2-9 Subnetting in a divided physical topology
Restricting Broadcast Traffic A broadcast is a network message sent from a single computer and distributed to all other devices on the same physical network segment. Broadcasts are resource-intensive because they use up network bandwidth and request the attention of every network adapter and processor on the local network segment. Routers block broadcasts and protect networks from becoming overburdened with unnecessary traffic. Because routers also define the logical limits of subnets, subnet ting a network indirectly allows you to limit the propagation of broadcast traffic in that network.
Lesson 3
Subnetting and Supernetting IP Networks
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Determining Host Capacity for Networks
For any specific network address, you can determine the quantity of host addresses available within that network by raising 2 to the power of the number of bits in the host ID, and then subtracting 2. For instance, the network address 192.168.0.0/24 reserves 8 bits for the host ID. Therefore, you can determine the number of hosts by calculating 28 2, which equals 254.
Using Calculator, you can easily compute the value of 2 to any power with the x^y button. This function appears only in Scientific view.
Excluding All-0s and All-1s Host IDs The value 2x yields the total number of distinct bit value combinations for a binary number of x bits, including the combinations of all 0s and all 1s. For example, the value 23 yields 8, which is the number of distinct bit value combinations for 3 bits. The list of these eight possible combinations is as follows:
000 = 0 (decimal) 001 = 1 (decimal) 010 = 2 (decimal) 011 = 3 (decimal) 100 = 4 (decimal) 101 = 5 (decimal) 110 = 6 (decimal) 111 = 7 (decimal)
However, combinations of all 0s and all 1s (0 and 7 in the preceding list) cannot be assigned to hosts because these addresses are reserved for other purposes. Specifically, the all-0s host ID is invalid because it is used to specify a network without specifying a host. The all-1s host ID cannot be assigned to a particular host because it is used by IP to broadcast a message to every host on a network. Because these values cannot be assigned to hosts, you must account for these nonusable host IDs by subtracting 2 from 2x when determining the host capacity of your network.
Determining Subnet Capacity
When the string of 1-bits in the subnet mask is extended beyond its default to create multiple subnets within any address space, the host ID is shortened, and a new address space for the subnet IDs is created, as shown in Figure 2-10 and Figure 2-11.
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