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14. Networking
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14. Networking
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This chapter covers the Microsoft .NET Framework networking classes, showing how they work and where there are differences from the java.net package. Table 14-1 shows the tiers of service provided by the classes in the java.net package alongside their .NET equivalents.
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Table 14-1. Three Network Tiers of Service
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Service Tier Request/response
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Native socket access
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.NET System.Net.WebClient System.Net.WebRequest System.Net.WebResponse System.Net.Sockets.TcpClient System.Net.Sockets.TcpListener System.Net.Sockets.UdpClient System.Net.Sockets.Socket
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The first section of this chapter discusses the WebClient, WebRequest, and WebResponse classes that support the request/response tier. The request/response tier supports HTTP-type requests, whereby a client initiates a connection, sends a message to the server, and blocks until the server returns a response via the open connection. The protocol tier exposes more control to the programmer and can be used for streams-based programming. The programmer can develop custom clients and servers and can send and receive both point-to-point and broadcast messages. The protocol tier consists of a set of convenience classes that make using underlying sockets easier; these classes are discussed in the second part of the chapter. Finally, the .NET Framework provides a managed code wrapper around the WinSock32 sockets API and provides the programmer with fine-grain control of networking, albeit at the cost of additional complexity. The native socket classes are discussed in the final part of this chapter.
Accessing the Internet
This section discusses the classes that make it possible to make Internet requests. We cover the underlying classes that deal with host names, network addresses, Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), and Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), and we conclude this section with the different ways that Internet requests can be handled.
URLs and URIs
Java version 1.4 includes the new java.net.URI class. This class coexists alongside java.net.URL, but the URL class doesn't inherit from the URI class. The .NET Framework includes the System.Uri class, which is an overarching representation of all URIs and therefore URLs.
14. Networking
Java and .NET both use pluggable protocol handlers to abstract URLs from the network protocol implementations. A protocol handler is a class that can service requests for one or more URI schemes. These handlers are registered with a factory class that will create instances in response to calls to a static method ensuring that new types of URI support can be added in the future. The .NET Framework includes protocol handlers for the http, https, and file schemes.
Note
Unlike java.net.URLConnection, the .NET Framework classes do not provide support for the ftp protocol.
The contents of a System.Uri instance are immutable. To manipulate URI strings, the programmer must use the System.UriBuilder class, which allows the segments of the URI string to be changed.
Constructors
The Java URL class contains overloaded constructors that support the specification of individual elements of a URL. The .NET Uri class is constructed using strings that are parsed into individual elements and can take arguments representing a base URL and the resource name to target. This example demonstrates how to create instances of the Uri class:
Uri x_uri1 = new Uri("http://www.microsoft.com/ms.htm"); Uri x_base = new Uri("http://www.microsoft.com"); Uri x_uri2 = new Uri(x_base, "ms.htm");
The Uri class also provides constructors that allow the programmer to specify whether escape characters should be substituted in the URL. Here's an example of creating a new URI using a string that is already escaped:
Uri x_uri = new Uri("http://www.microsoft.com/Hello%20World.htm", true);
Setting the second argument to true indicates that the string should not be escaped, preventing the Uri string from being escaped twice, which would cause the percentage symbol to be mapped out of the string.
Methods
Table 14-2 contrasts the java.net.URI and java.net.URL classes against the .NET System.Uri class.
14. Networking
Table 14-2. Comparison Between the Java URI and URL Classes and the .Net Uri Class
java.net.URI & java.net.URL URI.create(String) URI.getAuthority() URL.getAuthority()
System.Uri new Uri(string) Authority
Comments Parses the string argument to create a new Uri. Gets the authority for the URI. The authority is the fully qualified host name or Domain Name System (DNS) address of the server plus the port number if the port is not the default for the scheme.
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