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This chapter discusses the data types provided by C#. Although C# maintains strong parallels with the data types offered by Java, the designers of C# have also drawn heavily on the features of C and C++. For the Java programmer, C# data types include many subtle and confusing differences as well as some new features to learn. We begin with a broad discussion of the unified type system provided by the Microsoft .NET Framework and the fundamental division of data types into value and reference types. We then cover each of the data types in detail, describing how and when each type can be used and the functionality it provides. Next we detail each of the member types that can be used within interfaces, classes, and structs. Many of these member types will be familiar to the Java developer, but C# also defines new member types that provide clean and powerful language-based implementations of common programming models. Finally we discuss the types of variables in C# and in particular the features for passing variables by reference instead of value.
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Java has primitive and reference types; C# refers to them as value and reference types. Value types include byte, int, long, float, and double. Reference types include class, interface, and array. C# has a third type category, the infamous pointer. Java does not provide a pointer type, primarily because of the complexity of these types and the dangers they pose to application stability when used incorrectly. Pointers are discussed in the context of unsafe code in 6, "Advanced Language Features." Despite the apparent similarities, a closer inspection reveals fundamental differences in the C# type system:
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The common language runtime (CLR) unified type system extends object capabilities to value types. A richer set of inbuilt value types provides additional flexibility. The introduction of the struct data type provides stack-based objects. The delegate reference type provides a safe, object-oriented approach to method pointers. Enumerations provide a mechanism to group and name a related set of constant values.
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Apart from the pointer, we'll discuss all C# types in the following sections.
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Attributes are applicable to the declaration of all types. However, we won't discuss attributes in this chapter, saving them instead for a detailed discussion in 6.
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Unified Type System
The Microsoft .NET Framework considers every data type to be ultimately derived from System.Object. This gives all value types, including primitives such as int and long, object capabilities. This has two consequences:
Methods can be invoked against value types. This is more important for structs, which can implement new function members. Value types can be passed as object and interface references.
To understand the significance of the unified type system, it's important to understand the traditional differences between value and reference types. These are summarized in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1. The Difference Between Value and Reference Types
Characteristic Value Types Memory allocation Contents Disposal
Reference Types Stack. However, value-type members of heap-based objects Heap are stored inline, meaning that they are allocated memory on the heap within the containing object. Data. Reference to data Immediately as they leave scope. Garbage collected
In Java, the benefit of value types stems from their simplicity relative to objects, resulting in performance benefits and memory savings compared with the alternative of implementing everything as objects. The CLR maintains speed and memory savings by treating value types as objects only when required, minimizing the impact of providing value types with object capabilities. When a value type is used as an object or cast to an interface type, a process called boxing is used to automatically convert the value type to a reference type. Boxing and its counterpart, unboxing, provide the run-time bridge between value and reference types. The net effect is similar to that of using the wrapper classes in Java, such as the Integer and Double classes, but in C#, the CLR takes care of the details automatically.
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