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Arrays are reference types in both C# and Java. Because of their importance, both languages implement native language syntax to declare and manipulate arrays.
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Declaration and creation
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C# provides three syntax variants for declaring arrays, including two variants to deal with arrays of multiple dimensions: single-dimensional, multidimensional (rectangular), and jagged (arrays of arrays). Java makes no distinction between multidimensional and jagged arrays.
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5. Data Types
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The syntax for array declaration and creation in C# is less flexible than in Java; the square brackets must follow the type specification. If anything, however, this avoids confusion, improving code clarity without reducing functionality. Table 5-8 demonstrates the Java and C# syntax for array declaration and creation. We use arrays of type int in these examples, but C#, like Java, will support arrays of any valid type, including delegates, interfaces, and abstract classes.
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Table 5-8. A Cross-Language Array Comparison
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Single-dimensional Multidimensional or rectangular Jagged, or array of arrays
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Initialization
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Java int[] x = new int[5] int[][] x = new int[5][5] int[][][] y = new int[5][5][5] int[][] x = new int[5][5] int[][][] x = new int [5][5][5]
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C# int[] x = new int[5] int[,] y = new int[5,5] int[,,] z = new int[5,5,5] int[][] x = new int[5][] int[][,] y = new int[5][,]
As with Java, it's possible to initialize a declared array without explicitly creating it. An array of the appropriate size will be implicitly created based on the initialization values. For example, the following two statements are equivalent:
int[,,] x = {{{2,3,4}, {5,8,2}}, {{4,6,8}, {7,9,0}}}; int[,,] x = new int [2,2,3] {{{2,3,4}, {5,8,2}}, {{4,6,8}, {7,9,0}}};
The foreach statement
C# provides the foreach statement that simplifies the syntax required to iterate over the elements of an array. Full details of the foreach statement are included in the "Statements" section in 4, "Language Syntax and Features."
Arrays as objects and collections
Arrays are considered objects in both Java and C#; however, the objectlike features of arrays in C# are more extensive than those in Java. In Java, arrays are not directly exposed as objects, but the runtime enables an instance of an array to be assigned to a variable of type java.lang.Object and for any of the methods of the Object class to be executed against it. In C#, all arrays inherit from the abstract base class System.Array, which derives from System.Object. The System.Array class provides functionality for working with the array, some of which is available in java.util.Arrays. Arrays are also considered to be one of the fundamental collection types.
More Information
Both the object and collection characteristics of arrays are covered in detail in 9, "Collections."
5. Data Types
Delegates
Delegates are a type introduced by C# that has no direct analogue in Java. Delegates provide an object-oriented type-safe mechanism for passing method references as parameters without using function pointers. Delegates are primarily used for event handling and asynchronous callbacks. Instances of delegates contain references to one or more methods; this is known as an invocation list. Methods are added to the invocation list through the delegate constructor and subsequent use of simple operators. Through the delegate, the methods on the invocation list can be executed. Delegates do not provide functionality that is impossible to achieve in Java. The use of appropriate design patterns and interfaces in Java can provide equivalent capabilities; however, delegates are an elegant and powerful feature. Since delegates are used extensively throughout the .NET class libraries, a detailed understanding of how they work is important.
Declaration
A delegate declaration takes the following form: [attributes] [modifiers] delegate type identifier (parameters); The type and parameters of the delegate declaration define the return type and signature template a method must have so that it can be added to the delegate invocation list. For example:
//Declare a new delegate type public delegate int MyDelegate(int x, string y); //The following methods are valid delegate references public int Method1(int a, string b) { /* */} public int Method2(int e, string f) {/* */} public int Method3(int p, string q) {/* */} //The following methods are not valid public void Method4(int p, string q) {/* */} public int Method5(ref int p, string q) {/* */}
In this example, Method1, Method2, and Method3 are all valid to be used with MyDelegate. Method4 and Method5 are not because their return types and signatures do not match those defined in the MyDelegate declaration.
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