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9. Collections
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System.Collection.Comparer and System.Collection.CaseInsensitiveComparer. These classes are used in conjunction with sorting routines such as those implemented by System.Array. Here's an example:
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string[] x_arr = new string[] {"Allen", "Jones", "Adam", "Freeman"}; Array.Sort(x_arr, Comparer.Default); foreach (string x_str in x_arr) { Console.WriteLine("STR: " + x_str); }
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STR: STR: STR: STR: Adam Allen Freeman Jones
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Instances of both comparers are obtained using their static Default field and are not constructed directly. The single instance can be shared between sorting operations in different threads and classes.
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Other Collection Interfaces
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Two other collection interfaces are worth noting: IList and IDictionary. These provide the foundation for indexed array collections (such as ArrayList) and key/value collections (such as Hashtable). We'll discuss the classes that implement these interfaces in the next section.
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Basic Collections
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The .NET Framework includes classes that compare to some of the core collections found in Java, but the overall support and flexibility fall short. This section covers the basic .NET collections, which are similar to their Java equivalents. We begin with coverage of arrays; .NET introduces some clever changes that allow arrays to be treated like collections.
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Arrays
The most fundamental type of collection is the array. The use of arrays in .NET is similar to that in Java, with one significant enhancement: all arrays derive from the System.Array class. By deriving all arrays from the System.Array class, .NET provides useful functionality for array creation and manipulation. Although Java arrays are technically classed as objects, the language exposes methods only from the java.lang.Object class. Predominantly, arrays are created, assigned, and accessed using the integral language support provided by C#. For example:
9. Collections int[] x_arr = new int[10]; int[][] x_jagged = new int[2][]; int[,] x_multi = new int[2, 3]; int[] x_defined = new int[] {10, 20, 30};
More Information
Comprehensive coverage of the language support provided by C# for array creation and manipulation is in 5.
The remainder of this section focuses on the object properties of arrays and their use as a collection.
Arrays as Objects
All the array actions that are normally handled using language syntax are possible through the members of System.Array. For example, the following code fragments are functionally equivalent:
// Using language syntax int[] x_arr = new int[2]; x_arr[0] = 10; x_arr[1] = 20; for (int i = 0; i < x_arr.Length; i++) { Console.WriteLine("Index {0}, Value {1}", i, x_arr[i]); } // Using System.Array members Array x_arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof(int), 2); x_arr.SetValue(10, 0); x_arr.SetValue(20, 1); for (int i = 0; i < x_arr.Length; i++) { Console.WriteLine("Index {0}, Value {1}", i, x_arr.GetValue(i)); }
These examples demonstrate the object capabilities of .NET arrays. Bear in mind that while it is possible to use the System.Array class to handle all array features, there is no need to do so and the native support is recommended for most array operations. The primary advantage of the System.Array class is that it implements ICollection, IList, and IEnumerable, which allow arrays to be treated as collections. In addition, there are some useful static methods in Array that support sorting and searching. This feature will not revolutionize programming, but it is clever, and we admire the forethought of the designers. Table 9-3 summarizes the methods and properties available in the .NET System.Array class and identifies their Java equivalents. Because Java doesn't include a class comparable to System.Array, the alternatives are all static methods from the java.util.Arrays and java.lang.System utility classes.
9. Collections
Table 9-3. Comparison Between Java and C# Array Methods
Java N/A <array>.length
Member Array.Rank Array.Length
<array>[index].length Array.GetLength() N/A Array.Clear()
Arrays.binarySearch() Array.BinarySearch() System.arraycopy() Array.Copy()
System.arraycopy()
Array.CopyTo()
N/A N/A N/A N/A Arrays.Sort() N/A
Array.CreateInstance() Array.GetValue() Array.SetValue() Array.IndexOf() Array.LastIndexOf() Array.Reverse() Array.Sort() Array.GetEnumerator()
Description Returns the number of dimensions in the array. Returns the number of elements in the array. Gets the number of elements in a specified array dimension. Sets the elements of the array to the default value (which can be 0, false, or null, depending on the array type). Searches an array for a key value. Applied to one-dimensional arrays only. Copies a region of the array into another array. The .NET implementation will ensure that values are correctly boxed and typed. Copies all of the elements in a onedimensional array to another one-dimensional array. Creates a new array. (See foregoing examples.) Gets or sets the value of an array element. Equivalent of <array>[index] = value. Finds the first (or last) index of a value in a one-dimensional array. Reverses the order of the elements in a one-dimensional array. Sorts the elements in a one-dimensional array. Returns an enumerator that can be used to step over the elements.
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