vb.net qr code open source Part II Designing Types in .NET framework

Creator QR Code JIS X 0510 in .NET framework Part II Designing Types

Part II Designing Types
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When the C# compiler detects a call to a method, the compiler checks all of the methods with the specified name, where no parameter has the ParamArray attribute applied . If a method exists that can accept the call, the compiler generates the code necessary to call the method . However, if the compiler can t find a match, it looks for methods that have a ParamArray attribute to see whether the call can be satisfied . If the compiler finds a match, it emits code that constructs an array and populates its elements before emitting the code that calls the selected method . In the previous example, no Add method is defined that takes five Int32-compatible arguments; however, the compiler sees that the source code has a call to Add that is being passed a list of Int32 values and that there is an Add method whose array-of-Int32 parameter is marked with the ParamArray attribute . So the compiler considers this a match and generates code that coerces the parameters into an Int32 array and then calls the Add method . The end result is that you can write the code, easily passing a bunch of parameters to Add, but the compiler generates code as though you d written the first version that explicitly constructs and initializes the array . Only the last parameter to a method can be marked with the params keyword (ParamArrayAttribute) . This parameter must also identify a single-dimension array of any type . It s legal to pass null or a reference to an array of 0 entries as the last parameter to the method . The following call to Add compiles fine, runs fine, and produces a resulting sum of 0 (as expected):
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public static void Main() { // Both of these lines display "0" Console.WriteLine(Add()); // passes new Int32[0] to Add Console.WriteLine(Add(null)); // passes null to Add: more efficient (no array allocated) }
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So far, all of the examples have shown how to write a method that takes an arbitrary number of Int32 parameters . How would you write a method that takes an arbitrary number of parameters where the parameters could be any type The answer is very simple: just modify the method s prototype so that it takes an Object[] instead of an Int32[] . Here s a method that displays the Type of every object passed to it:
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public sealed class Program { public static void Main() { DisplayTypes(new Object(), new Random(), "Jeff", 5); } private static void DisplayTypes(params Object[] objects) { if (objects != null) { foreach (Object o in objects) Console.WriteLine(o.GetType()); } } }
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9 Parameters
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Running this code yields the following output:
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System.Object System.Random System.String System.Int32
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Important Be aware that calling a method that takes a variable number of arguments incurs
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an additional performance hit unless you explicitly pass null . After all, an array object must be allocated on the heap, the array s elements must be initialized, and the array s memory must ultimately be garbage collected . To help reduce the performance hit associated with this, you may want to consider defining a few overloaded methods that do not use the params keyword . For some examples, look at the System.String class s Concat method, which has the following overloads:
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public sealed class String : Object, ... { public static string Concat(object arg0); public static string Concat(object arg0, object arg1); public static string Concat(object arg0, object arg1, object arg2); public static string Concat(params object[] args); public public public public } static static static static string string string string Concat(string Concat(string Concat(string Concat(params str0, string str1); str0, string str1, string str2); str0, string str1, string str2, string str3); string[] values);
As you can see, the Concat method defines several overloads that do not use the params keyword . These versions of the Concat method are the most frequently called overloads, and these overloads exist in order to improve performance for the most common scenarios . The overloads that use the params keyword are there for the less common scenarios; these scenarios will suffer a performance hit, but fortunately, they are rare .
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