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BigList<T> Bag<T> OrderedBag<T> Set<T> OrderedSet<T> Deque<T>
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OrderedDictionary<TKey,TValue> MultiDictionary<TKey,TValue>
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Generics were added to version 2 .0 of the CLR, and it was a major task that required many people working for quite some time . Specifically, to make generics work, Microsoft had to do the following:
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Create new Intermediate Language (IL) instructions that are aware of type arguments . Modify the format of existing metadata tables so that type names and methods with generic parameters could be expressed . Modify the various programming languages (C#, Microsoft Visual Basic .NET, etc .) to support the new syntax, allowing developers to define and reference generic types and methods . Modify the compilers to emit the new IL instructions and the modified metadata format . Modify the just-in-time (JIT) compiler to process the new type-argument aware IL instructions that produce the correct native code .
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Create new reflection members so that developers can query types and members to determine if they have generic parameters . Also, new reflection emit members had to be defined so that developers could create generic type and method definitions at runtime . Modify the debugger to show and manipulate generic types, members, fields, and local variables . Modify the Microsoft Visual Studio IntelliSense feature to show specific member prototypes when using a generic type or a method with a specific data type .
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Now let s spend some time discussing how the CLR handles generics internally . This information could impact how you architect and design a generic algorithm . It could also impact your decision to use an existing generic algorithm or not .
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Open and Closed Types
In various chapters throughout this book, I have discussed how the CLR creates an internal data structure for each and every type in use by an application . These data structures are called type objects . Well, a type with generic type parameters is still considered a type, and the CLR will create an internal type object for each of these . This applies to reference types (classes), value types (structs), interface types, and delegate types . However, a type with generic type parameters is called an open type, and the CLR does not allow any instance of an open type to be constructed (similar to how the CLR prevents an instance of an interface type from being constructed) . When code references a generic type, it can specify a set of generic type arguments . If actual data types are passed in for all of the type arguments, the type is called a closed type, and the CLR does allow instances of a closed type to be constructed . However, it is possible for code referencing a generic type to leave some generic type arguments unspecified . This creates a new open type object in the CLR, and instances of this type cannot be created . The following code should make this clear:
using System; using System.Collections.Generic; // A partially specified open type internal sealed class DictionaryStringKey<TValue> : Dictionary<String, TValue> { } public static class Program { public static void Main() { Object o = null; // Dictionary<,> is an open type having 2 type parameters Type t = typeof(Dictionary<,>);
Part II Designing Types
// Try to create an instance of this type (fails) o = CreateInstance(t); Console.WriteLine(); // DictionaryStringKey<> is an open type having 1 type parameter t = typeof(DictionaryStringKey<>); // Try to create an instance of this type (fails) o = CreateInstance(t); Console.WriteLine(); // DictionaryStringKey<Guid> is a closed type t = typeof(DictionaryStringKey<Guid>); // Try to create an instance of this type (succeeds) o = CreateInstance(t); // Prove it actually worked Console.WriteLine("Object type=" + o.GetType()); } private static Object CreateInstance(Type t) { Object o = null; try { o = Activator.CreateInstance(t); Console.Write("Created instance of {0}", t.ToString()); } catch (ArgumentException e) { Console.WriteLine(e.Message); } return o; } }
When I compile the code above and run it, I get the following output:
Cannot create an instance of System.Collections.Generic. Dictionary`2[TKey,TValue] because Type.ContainsGenericParameters is true. Cannot create an instance of DictionaryStringKey`1[TValue] because Type.ContainsGenericParameters is true. Created instance of DictionaryStringKey`1[System.Guid] Object type=DictionaryStringKey`1[System.Guid]
As you can see, Activator s CreateInstance method throws an ArgumentException when you ask it to construct an instance of an open type . In fact, the exception s string message indicates that the type still contains some generic parameters . In the output, you ll notice that the type names end with a backtick (`) followed by a number . The number indicates the type s arity, which indicates the number of type parameters required by the type . For example, the Dictionary class has an arity of 2 since it requires that types be specified for TKey and TValue . The DictionaryStringKey class has an arity of 1 since it requires just one type to be specified for TValue .
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