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I should also point out that the CLR allocates a type s static fields inside the type object (as discussed in 4, Type Fundamentals ) . So each closed type has its own static fields . In other words, if List<T> defined any static fields, these fields are not shared between a List<DateTime> and a List<String>; each closed type object has its own static fields . Also, if a generic type defines a static constructor (discussed in 8, Methods ), this constructor will execute once per closed type . Sometimes people define a static constructor on a generic type to ensure that the type arguments will meet certain criteria . For example, if you wanted to define a generic type that can be used only with enumerated types, you could do the following:
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internal sealed class GenericTypeThatRequiresAnEnum<T> { static GenericTypeThatRequiresAnEnum() { if (!typeof(T).IsEnum) { throw new ArgumentException("T must be an enumerated type"); } } }
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The CLR has a feature, called constraints, that offers a better way for you to define a generic type indicating what type arguments are valid for it . I ll discuss constraints later in this chapter . Unfortunately, constraints do not support the ability to limit a type argument to enumerated types only, which is why the previous example requires a static constructor to ensure that the type is an enumerated type .
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Generic Types and Inheritance
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A generic type is a type, and as such, it can be derived from any other type . When you use a generic type and specify type arguments, you are defining a new type object in the CLR, and the new type object is derived from whatever type the generic type was derived from . In other words, since List<T> is derived from Object, List<String> and List<Guid> are also derived from Object . Similarly, since DictionaryStringKey<TValue> is derived from Dictionary<String, TValue>, DictionaryStringKey<Guid> is also derived from Dictionary<String, Guid> . Understanding that specifying type arguments doesn t have anything to do with inheritance hierarchies will help you to recognize what kind of casting you can and can t do . For example, if a linked-list node class is defined like this:
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internal sealed class Node<T> { public T m_data; public Node<T> m_next; public Node(T data) : this(data, null) { } public Node(T data, Node<T> next) { m_data = data; m_next = next;
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Part II Designing Types
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} public override String ToString() { return m_data.ToString() + ((m_next != null) m_next.ToString() : String.Empty); } }
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then I can write some code to build up a linked list that would look something like this:
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private static void SameDataLinkedList() { Node<Char> head = new Node<Char>('C'); head = new Node<Char>('B', head); head = new Node<Char>('A', head); Console.WriteLine(head.ToString()); }
In the Node class just shown, the m_next field must refer to another node that has the same kind of data type in its m_data field . This means that the linked list must contain nodes in which all data items are of the same type (or derived type) . For example, I can t use the Node class to create a linked list in which one element contains a Char, another element contains a DateTime, and another element contains a String . Well, I could if I use Node<Object> everywhere, but then I would lose compile-time type safety, and value types would get boxed . So a better way to go would be to define a non-generic Node base class and then define a generic TypedNode class (using the Node class as a base class) . Now, I can have a linked list in which each node can be of a specific data type (not Object), get compile-time type safety and avoid the boxing of value types . Here are the new class definitions:
internal class Node { protected Node m_next; public Node(Node next) { m_next = next; } } internal sealed class TypedNode<T> : Node { public T m_data; public TypedNode(T data) : this(data, null) { } public TypedNode(T data, Node next) : base(next) { m_data = data; } public override String ToString() { return m_data.ToString() + ((m_next != null) m_next.ToString() : String.Empty); } }
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