open source qr code library vb.net Chars, Strings, and Working with Text in Visual Studio .NET

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14 Chars, Strings, and Working with Text
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charEnum.ElementIndex, charEnum.GetTextElement(), Environment.NewLine); } MessageBox.Show(output, "Result of GetTextElementEnumerator"); } private static void EnumTextElementIndexes(String s) { String output = String.Empty; Int32[] textElemIndex = StringInfo.ParseCombiningCharacters(s); for (Int32 i = 0; i < textElemIndex.Length; i++) { output += String.Format( "Character {0} starts at index {1}{2}", i, textElemIndex[i], Environment.NewLine); } MessageBox.Show(output, "Result of ParseCombiningCharacters"); } }
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Building and running this code produces the message boxes shown in Figures 14-2, 14-3, and 14-4 .
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FIguRE 14-2 Result of SubstringByTextElements
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FIguRE 14-3 Result of GetTextElementEnumerator
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FIguRE 14-4 Result of ParseCombiningCharacters
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Part III Essential Types
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Other String Operations
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The String type also offers methods that allow you to copy a string or parts of it . Table 14-1 summarizes these methods .
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TABLE 14-1
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Methods for Copying Strings
Method Type
Instance
Member
Clone
Description
Returns a reference to the same object (this) . This is OK because String objects are immutable . This method implements String s ICloneable interface . Returns a new duplicate string of the specified string . This method is rarely used and exists to help applications that treat strings as tokens . Normally, strings with the same set of characters are interned to a single string . This method creates a new string object so that the references (pointers) are different even though the strings contain the same characters . Copies a portion of the string s characters to an array of characters . Returns a new string that represents a portion of the original string . Returns a reference to the same object (this) .
Copy
Static
CopyTo Substring ToString
Instance Instance Instance
In addition to these methods, String offers many static and instance methods that manipulate a string, such as Insert, Remove, PadLeft, Replace, Split, Join, ToLower, ToUpper, Trim, Concat, Format, and so on . Again, the important thing to remember about all of these methods is that they return new string objects; because strings are immutable, once they re created, they can t be modified (using safe code) .
Constructing a String Efficiently
Because the String type represents an immutable string, the FCL provides another type, System.Text.StringBuilder, which allows you to perform dynamic operations efficiently with strings and characters to create a String . Think of StringBuilder as a fancy constructor to create a String that can be used with the rest of the framework . In general, you should design methods that take String parameters, not StringBuilder parameters . Logically, a StringBuilder object contains a field that refers to an array of Char structures . StringBuilder s members allow you to manipulate this character array, effectively shrinking the string or changing the characters in the string . If you grow the string past the allocated array of characters, the StringBuilder automatically allocates a new, larger array, copies the characters, and starts using the new array . The previous array is garbage collected . When finished using the StringBuilder object to construct your string, convert the StringBuilder s character array into a String simply by calling the StringBuilder s
14 Chars, Strings, and Working with Text
ToString method . This creates a new String object in the heap that contains the string that
was in the StringBuilder at the time you called ToString . At this point, you can continue to manipulate the string inside the StringBuilder, and later you can call ToString again to convert it into another String object .
Constructing a StringBuilder Object
Unlike with the String class, the CLR has no special information about the StringBuilder class . In addition, most languages (including C#) don t consider the StringBuilder class to be a primitive type . You construct a StringBuilder object as you would any other nonprimitive type:
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
The StringBuilder type offers many constructors . The job of each constructor is to allocate and initialize the state maintained by each StringBuilder object:
Maximum capacity An Int32 value that specifies the maximum number of characters that can be placed in the string . The default is Int32.MaxValue (approximately 2 billion) . It s unusual to change this value . However, you might specify a smaller maximum capacity to ensure that you never create a string over a certain length . Once constructed, a StringBuilder s maximum capacity value can t be changed . Capacity An Int32 value indicating the size of the character array being maintained by the StringBuilder . The default is 16 . If you have some idea of how many characters you ll place in the StringBuilder, you should use this number to set the capacity when constructing the StringBuilder object . When appending characters to the character array, the StringBuilder detects if the array is trying to grow beyond the array s capacity . If it is, the StringBuilder automatically doubles the capacity field, allocates a new array (the size of the new capacity), and copies the characters from the original array into the new array . The original array will be garbage collected in the future . Dynamically growing the array hurts performance; avoid this by setting a good initial capacity .
Character array An array of Char structures that maintains the set of characters in the string . The number of characters is always less than or equal to the capacity and maximum capacity values . You can use the StringBuilder s Length property to obtain the number of characters used in the array . The Length is always less than or equal to the StringBuilder s capacity value . When constructing a StringBuilder, you can pass a String to initialize the character array . If you don t specify a string, the array initially contains no characters that is, the Length property returns 0 .
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