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20 Exceptions and State Management
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At the heart of the code contracts is the static System.Diagnostics.Contracts.Contract class:
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public static class Contract { // Precondition methods: [Conditional("CONTRACTS_FULL")] public static void Requires(Boolean condition); public static void EndContractBlock(); // Preconditions: Always public static void Requires<TException>(Boolean condition) where TException : Exception; // Postcondition methods: [Conditional("CONTRACTS_FULL")] public static void Ensures(Boolean condition); public static void EnsuresOnThrow<TException>(Boolean condition) where TException : Exception; // Special Postcondition methods: Always public static T Result<T>(); public static T OldValue<T>(T value); public static T ValueAtReturn<T>(out T value); // Object Invariant methods: [Conditional("CONTRACTS_FULL")] public static void Invariant(Boolean condition); // Quantifier methods: Always public static Boolean Exists<T>(IEnumerable<T> collection, Predicate<T> predicate); public static Boolean Exists(Int32 fromInclusive, Int32 toExclusive, Predicate<Int32> predicate); public static Boolean ForAll<T>(IEnumerable<T> collection, Predicate<T> predicate); public static Boolean ForAll(Int32 fromInclusive, Int32 toExclusive, Predicate<Int32> predicate); // Helper methods: [Conditional("CONTRACTS_FULL")] or [Conditional("DEBUG")] public static void Assert(Boolean condition); public static void Assume(Boolean condition); // Infrastructure event: usually your code will not use this event public static event EventHandler<ContractFailedEventArgs> ContractFailed; }
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As indicated above, many of these static methods have the [Conditional("CONTRACTS_ FULL")] attribute applied to them . Some of the helper methods also have the [Conditional("DEBUG")] attribute applied to them . This means that the compiler will ignore any code you write that calls these methods unless the appropriate symbol is defined when compiling your code . Any methods marked with Always mean that the compiler always emits code to call the method . Also, the Requires, Requires<TException>, Ensures, EnsuresOnThrow, Invariant, Assert, and Assume methods have an additional overload (not shown) that takes a String message argument so you can explicitly specify a string message that should appear when the contract is violated . By default, contracts merely serve as documentation as you would not define the CONTRACTS_FULL symbol when you build your project . In order to get some additional value out of using contracts, you must download additional tools and a Visual Studio property pane from http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/devlabs/dd491992.aspx. The reason why all the
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code contract tools are not included with Visual Studio is because this technology is relatively new and is being improved rapidly . Microsoft s DevLabs Web site can offer new versions and improvements more quickly than Visual Studio itself . After downloading and installing the additional tools, you will see your projects have a new property pane available to them, as shown in Figure 20-9 .
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FIguRE 20-9 The Code Contracts pane for a Visual Studio project
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To turn on code contract features, select the Perform Runtime Contract Checking check box and select Full from the combo box next to it . This defines the CONTRACTS_FULL symbol when you build your project and invokes the appropriate tools (described shortly) after building your project . Now, at runtime, when a contract is violated, Contract s ContractFailed event is raised . Usually, developers do not register any methods with this event, but if you do, then any methods you register will receive a ContractFailedEventArgs object that looks like this:
public sealed class ContractFailedEventArgs : EventArgs { public ContractFailedEventArgs(ContractFailureKind failureKind, String message, String condition, Exception originalException); public public public public ContractFailureKind String String Exception FailureKind Message Condition OriginalException { { { { get; get; get; get; } } } }
public Boolean Handled { get; } public void SetHandled(); public Boolean Unwind { get; } public void SetUnwind(); }
// true if any handler called SetHhandled // Call to ignore the violation; sets Handled to true // true if any handler called SetUnwind or threw // Call to force ContractException; set Unwind to true
20 Exceptions and State Management
Multiple event handler methods can be registered with this event . Each method can process the contract violation any way it chooses . For example, a handler can log the violation, ignore the violation (by calling SetHandled), or terminate the process . If any method calls SetHandled, then the violation will be considered handled and, after all the handler methods return, the application code is allowed to continue running unless any handler calls SetUnwind . If a handler calls SetUnwind, then, after all the handler methods have completed running, a System.Diagnostics.Contracts.ContractException is thrown . Note that this type is internal to MSCorLib .dll and therefore you cannot write a catch block to catch it explicitly . Also note that if any handler method throws an unhandled exception, then the remaining handler methods are invoked and then a ContractException is thrown . If there are no event handlers or if none of them call SetHandled, SetUnwind, or throw an unhandled exception, then default processing of the contract violation happens next . If the CLR is being hosted, then the host is notified that a contract failed . If the CLR is running an application on a non-interactive window station (which would be the case for a Windows service application), then Environment.FailFast is called to instantly terminate the process . If you compile with the Assert On Contract Failure option checked, then an assert dialog box will appear allowing you to connect a debugger to your application . If this option is not checked, then a ContractException is thrown . Let s look at a sample class that is using code contracts:
public sealed class Item { /* ... */ } public sealed class ShoppingCart { private List<Item> m_cart = new List<Item>(); private Decimal m_totalCost = 0; public ShoppingCart() { } public void AddItem(Item item) { AddItemHelper(m_cart, item, ref m_totalCost); } private static void AddItemHelper(List<Item> m_cart, Item newItem, ref Decimal totalCost) { // Preconditions: Contract.Requires(newItem != null); Contract.Requires(Contract.ForAll(m_cart, s => s != newItem)); // Postconditions: Contract.Ensures(Contract.Exists(m_cart, s => s == newItem)); Contract.Ensures(totalCost >= Contract.OldValue(totalCost)); Contract.EnsuresOnThrow<IOException>(totalCost == Contract.OldValue(totalCost)); // Do some stuff (which could throw an IOException)... m_cart.Add(newItem); totalCost += 1.00M; }
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