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Shared Assemblies and Strongly Named Assemblies
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When you re finished developing and testing the assembly, you need to officially sign it so that you can package and deploy it . To sign the assembly, use the SN .exe utility again, this time with the R switch and the name of the file that contains the actual private key . The R switch causes SN .exe to hash the file s contents, sign it with the private key, and embed the RSA digital signature in the file where the space for it had previously been reserved . After this step, you can deploy the fully signed assembly . On the developing and testing machines, don t forget to turn verification of this assembly back on by using SN .exe s Vu or Vx command-line switch . The following list summarizes the steps discussed in this section to develop your assembly by using the delayed signing technique: 1. While developing an assembly, obtain a file that contains only your company s public key, and compile your assembly by using the /keyfile and /delaysign compiler switches:
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csc /keyfile:MyCompany.PublicKey /delaysign MyAssembly.cs
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2. After building the assembly, execute the following line so that the CLR will trust the assembly s bytes without performing the hash and comparison . This allows you to install the assembly in the GAC (if you desire) . Now, you can build other assemblies that reference the assembly, and you can test the assembly . Note that you have to execute the following command line only once per machine; it s not necessary to perform this step each time you build your assembly .
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SN.exe Vr MyAssembly.dll
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3. When ready to package and deploy the assembly, obtain your company s private key, and then execute the line below . You can install this new version in the GAC if you desire, but don t attempt to install it in the GAC until executing step 4 .
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SN.exe -R MyAssembly.dll MyCompany.PrivateKey
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4. To test in real conditions, turn verification back on by executing the following command line:
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SN Vu MyAssembly.dll
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At the beginning of this section, I mentioned how organizations keep their key pairs in a hardware device such as a smart card . To keep these keys secure, you must make sure that the key values are never persisted in a disk file . Cryptographic service providers (CSPs) offer containers that abstract the location of these keys . Microsoft, for example, uses a CSP that has a container that, when accessed, obtains the private key from a hardware device . If your public/private key pair is in a CSP container, you ll have to specify different switches to the CSC .exe, AL .exe, and SN .exe programs: When compiling (CSC .exe), specify the /keycontainer switch instead of the /keyfile switch; when linking (AL .exe), specify its /keyname switch instead of its /keyfile switch; and when using the Strong Name program (SN .exe) to add a private key to a delay-signed assembly, specify the Rc switch instead of the R switch . SN .exe offers additional switches that allow you to perform operations with a CSP .
Part I CLR Basics
Important Delayed signing is also useful whenever you want to perform some other operation
to an assembly before you package it . For example, you may want to run an obfuscator over your assembly . You can t obfuscate an assembly after it s been fully signed because the hash value will be incorrect . So, if you want to obfuscate an assembly file or perform any other type of postbuild operation, you should use delayed signing, perform the post-build operation, and then run SN .exe with the R or Rc switch to complete the signing process of the assembly with all of its hashing .
Privately Deploying Strongly Named Assemblies
Installing assemblies into the GAC offers several benefits . The GAC enables many applications to share assemblies, reducing physical memory usage on the whole . In addition, it s easy to deploy a new version of the assembly into the GAC and have all applications use the new version via a publisher policy (described later in this chapter) . The GAC also provides side-byside management for an assembly s different versions . However, the GAC is usually secured so that only an administrator can install an assembly into it . Also, installing into the GAC breaks the simple copy deployment story . Although strongly named assemblies can be installed into the GAC, they certainly don t have to be . In fact, it s recommended that you deploy assemblies into the GAC only if the assembly is intended to be shared by many applications . If an assembly isn t intended to be shared, it should be deployed privately . Deploying privately preserves the simple copy install deployment story and better isolates the application and its assemblies . Also, the GAC isn t intended to be the new C:\Windows\System32 dumping ground for common files . The reason is because new versions of assemblies don t overwrite each other; they are installed side by side, eating up disk space . In addition to deploying a strongly named assembly in the GAC or privately, a strongly named assembly can be deployed to some arbitrary directory that a small set of applications know about . For example, you might be producing three applications, all of which want to share a strongly named assembly . Upon installation, you can create three directories: one for each application and an additional directory for the assembly you want shared . When you install each application into its directory, also install an XML configuration file, and have the shared assembly s codeBase element indicate the path of the shared assembly . Now at runtime, the CLR will know to look in the strongly named assembly s directory for the shared assembly . For the record, this technique is rarely used and is somewhat discouraged because no single application controls when the assembly s files should be uninstalled .
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