qr code generator using vb.net Part II Designing Types in Visual Studio .NET

Printing QR Code in Visual Studio .NET Part II Designing Types

Part II Designing Types
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- Math.Sqrt(other.m_x * other.m_x + other.m_y * other.m_y)); } // Implementation of IComparable's CompareTo method public Int32 CompareTo(Object o) { if (GetType() != o.GetType()) { throw new ArgumentException("o is not a Point"); } // Call type-safe CompareTo method return CompareTo((Point) o); } }
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public static class Program { public static void Main() { // Create two Point instances on the stack. Point p1 = new Point(10, 10); Point p2 = new Point(20, 20); // p1 does NOT get boxed to call ToString (a virtual method). Console.WriteLine(p1.ToString());// "(10, 10)" // p DOES get boxed to call GetType (a non-virtual method). Console.WriteLine(p1.GetType());// "Point" // p1 does NOT get boxed to call CompareTo. // p2 does NOT get boxed because CompareTo(Point) is called. Console.WriteLine(p1.CompareTo(p2));// "-1" // p1 DOES get boxed, and the reference is placed in c. IComparable c = p1; Console.WriteLine(c.GetType());// "Point" // p1 does NOT get boxed to call CompareTo. // Since CompareTo is not being passed a Point variable, // CompareTo(Object) is called which requires a reference to // a boxed Point. // c does NOT get boxed because it already refers to a boxed Point. Console.WriteLine(p1.CompareTo(c));// "0" // c does NOT get boxed because it already refers to a boxed Point. // p2 does get boxed because CompareTo(Object) is called. Console.WriteLine(c.CompareTo(p2));// "-1" // c is unboxed, and fields are copied into p2. p2 = (Point) c; // Proves that the fields got copied into p2. Console.WriteLine(p2.ToString());// "(10, 10)" } }
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This code demonstrates several scenarios related to boxing and unboxing:
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5 Primitive, Reference, and Value Types
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Calling ToString In the call to ToString, p1 doesn t have to be boxed . At first, you d think that p1 would have to be boxed because ToString is a virtual method that is inherited from the base type, System.ValueType . Normally, to call a virtual method, the CLR needs to determine the object s type in order to locate the type s method table . Since p1 is an unboxed value type, there s no type object pointer . However, the just-in-time (JIT) compiler sees that Point overrides the ToString method, and it emits code that calls ToString directly (nonvirtually) without having to do any boxing . The compiler knows that polymorphism can t come into play here since Point is a value type, and no type can derive from it to provide another implementation of this virtual method . Note that if Point's ToString method internally calls base.ToString(), then the value type instance would be boxed when calling System.ValueType's ToString method . Calling GetType In the call to the nonvirtual GetType method, p1 does have to be boxed . The reason is that the Point type inherits GetType from System.Object . So to call GetType, the CLR must use a pointer to a type object, which can be obtained only by boxing p1 . Calling CompareTo (first time) In the first call to CompareTo, p1 doesn t have to be boxed because Point implements the CompareTo method, and the compiler can just call it directly . Note that a Point variable (p2) is being passed to CompareTo, and therefore the compiler calls the overload of CompareTo that accepts a Point parameter . This means that p2 will be passed by value to CompareTo and no boxing is necessary . Casting to IComparable When casting p1 to a variable (c) that is of an interface type, p1 must be boxed because interfaces are reference types by definition . So p1 is boxed, and the pointer to this boxed object is stored in the variable c . The following call to GetType proves that c does refer to a boxed Point on the heap . CallingCompareTo (second time) In the second call to CompareTo, p1 doesn t have to be boxed because Point implements the CompareTo method, and the compiler can just call it directly . Note that an IComparable variable (c) is being passed to CompareTo, and therefore, the compiler calls the overload of CompareTo that accepts an Object parameter . This means that the argument passed must be a pointer that refers to an object on the heap . Fortunately, c does refer to a boxed Point, and therefore, that memory address in c can be passed to CompareTo, and no additional boxing is necessary . Calling CompareTo (third time) In the third call to CompareTo, c already refers to a boxed Point object on the heap . Since c is of the IComparable interface type, you can call only the interface s CompareTo method that requires an Object parameter . This means that the argument passed must be a pointer that refers to an object on the heap . So p2 is boxed, and the pointer to this boxed object is passed to CompareTo .
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