generate 2d barcode vb.net Part II Designing Types in C#.NET

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Part II Designing Types
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For example, the ICollection<T> interface definition includes the contracts of the IEnumerable<T> and IEnumerable interfaces . This means that:
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Any class that inherits the ICollection<T> interface must implement all of the methods defined by the ICollection<T>, IEnumerable<T>, and IEnumerable interfaces . Any code that expects an object whose type implements the ICollection<T> interface can assume that the object s type also implements the methods of the IEnumerable<T> and IEnumerable interfaces .
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Inheriting an Interface
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In this section, I ll show how to define a type that implements an interface, and then I ll show how to create an instance of this type and use the object to call the interface s methods . C# actually makes this pretty simple, but what happens behind the scenes is a bit more complicated . I ll explain what is happening behind the scenes later in this chapter . The System.IComparable<T> interface is defined (in MSCorLib .dll) as follows:
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public interface IComparable<in T> { Int32 CompareTo(T other); }
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The following code shows how to define a type that implements this interface and also shows code that compares two Point objects:
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using System;
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// Point is derived from System.Object and implements IComparable<T> for Point. public sealed class Point : IComparable<Point> { private Int32 m_x, m_y; public Point(Int32 x, Int32 y) { m_x = x; m_y = y; } // This method implements IComparable<T>.CompareTo() for Point public Int32 CompareTo(Point other) { return Math.Sign(Math.Sqrt(m_x * m_x + m_y * m_y) - Math.Sqrt(other.m_x * other.m_x + other.m_y * other.m_y)); } public override String ToString() { return String.Format("({0}, {1})", m_x, m_y); } }
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13 Interfaces
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public static class Program { public static void Main() { Point[] points = new Point[] { new Point(3, 3), new Point(1, 2), }; // Here is a call to Point's IComparable<T> CompareTo method if (points[0].CompareTo(points[1]) > 0) { Point tempPoint = points[0]; points[0] = points[1]; points[1] = tempPoint; } Console.WriteLine("Points from closest to (0, 0) to farthest:"); foreach (Point p in points) Console.WriteLine(p); } }
The C# compiler requires that a method that implements an interface be marked as public . The CLR requires that interface methods be marked as virtual . If you do not explicitly mark the method as virtual in your source code, the compiler marks the method as virtual and sealed; this prevents a derived class from overriding the interface method . If you explicitly mark the method as virtual, the compiler marks the method as virtual (and leaves it unsealed); this allows a derived class to override the interface method . If an interface method is sealed, a derived class cannot override the method . However, a derived class can re-inherit the same interface and can provide its own implementation for the interface s methods . When calling an interface s method on an object, the implementation associated with the object s type is called . Here is an example that demonstrates this:
using System; public static class Program { public static void Main() { /************************* First Example *************************/ Base b = new Base(); // Calls Dispose by using b's type: "Base's Dispose" b.Dispose(); // Calls Dispose by using b's object's type: "Base's Dispose" ((IDisposable)b).Dispose();
/************************* Second Example ************************/ Derived d = new Derived(); // Calls Dispose by using d's type: "Derived's Dispose" d.Dispose(); // Calls Dispose by using d's object's type: "Derived's Dispose"
Part II Designing Types
((IDisposable)d).Dispose();
/************************* Third Example *************************/ b = new Derived(); // Calls Dispose by using b's type: "Base's Dispose" b.Dispose(); // Calls Dispose by using b's object's type: "Derived's Dispose" ((IDisposable)b).Dispose(); } } // This class is derived from Object and it implements IDisposable internal class Base : IDisposable { // This method is implicitly sealed and cannot be overridden public void Dispose() { Console.WriteLine("Base's Dispose"); } } // This class is derived from Base and it re-implements IDisposable internal class Derived : Base, IDisposable { // This method cannot override Base's Dispose. 'new' is used to indicate // that this method re-implements IDisposable's Dispose method new public void Dispose() { Console.WriteLine("Derived's Dispose"); // NOTE: The next line shows how to call a base class's implementation (if desired) // base.Dispose(); } }
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