Inserts optional parameters when calling a method Boxes value type instances in C#.NET

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Inserts optional parameters when calling a method Boxes value type instances
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20 Exceptions and State Management
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Constructs/initializes parameter arrays Binds to members of dynamic variables and expressions Binds to extension methods Binds/invokes overloaded operators Constructs delegate objects Infers types when calling generic methods, declaring a local variable, and using a lambda expression Defines/constructs closure classes for lambda expressions and iterators Defines/constructs/initializes anonymous types and instances of them Rewrites code to support Language Integrated Queries (LINQs; query expressions and expression trees)
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And, the CLR itself does all kinds of great things for developers to make our lives even easier . For example, the CLR implicitly:
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Invokes virtual methods and interface methods Loads assemblies and JIT-compiles methods which can potentially throw FileLoadException, BadImageFormatException, InvalidProgramException, FieldAccessException, MethodAccessException, MissingFieldException, MissingMethodException, and VerificationException Transitions across AppDomain boundaries when accessing an object of a MarshalByRefObject-derived type which can potentially throw
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AppDomainUnloadedException
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Serializes and deserializes objects when crossing an AppDomain boundary Causes thread(s) to throw a ThreadAbortException when Thread.Abort or AppDomain.Unload is called Invokes Finalize methods after a garbage collection before objects have their memory reclaimed Creates type objects in the loader heap when using generic types Invokes a type s static constructor potential throwing of TypeInitializationException Throws various exceptions, including OutOfMemoryException, DivideByZeroException, NullReferenceException, RuntimeWrappedException, TargetInvocationException, OverflowException, NotFiniteNumberException, ArrayTypeMismatchException, DataMisalignedException, IndexOutOfRangeException, InvalidCastException, RankException, SecurityException, and more
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Part IV
Core Facilities
And, of course, the .NET Framework ships with a massive class library which contains tens of thousands of types each type encapsulating common, reusable functionality . There are types for building Web form applications, Web services, rich GUI applications, working with security, manipulation of images, speech recognition, and the list goes on and on . Any of this code could throw an exception, indicating failure . And, future versions could introduce new exception types derived from existing exception types and now your catch blocks catch exception types that never existed before . All of this stuff object-oriented programming, compiler features, CLR features, and the enormous class library is what makes the .NET Framework such a compelling software development platform .4 My point is that all of this stuff introduces points of failure into your code which you have little control over . As long as everything is working great, all is well: we write code easily, the code is easy to read and maintain . But, when something goes wrong, it is nearly impossible to fully understand what went wrong and why . Here is an example that should really help get my point across:
private static Object OneStatement(Stream stream, Char charToFind) { return (charToFind + ": " + stream.GetType() + String.Empty + (stream.Position + 512M)) .Where(c=>c == charToFind).ToArray(); }
This slightly contrived method contains just one C# statement in it, but this statement does an awful lot of work . In fact, here is the Intermediate Language (IL) the C# compiler produced for this method . (I ve put some lines in boldface italics that are potential points of failure due to implicit operations that are occurring .)
.method private hidebysig static object OneStatement( class [mscorlib]System.IO.Stream stream, char charToFind) cil managed { .maxstack 5 .locals init ( [0] class Program/<>c__DisplayClass1 CS$<>8__locals2, [1] object[] CS$0$0000) L_0000: newobj instance void Program/<>c__DisplayClass1::.ctor() L_0005: stloc.0 L_0006: ldloc.0 L_0007: ldarg.1 L_0008: stfld char Program/<>c__DisplayClass1::charToFind L_000d: ldc.i4.5 L_000e: newarr object L_0013: stloc.1 L_0014: ldloc.1 L_0015: ldc.i4.0 L_0016: ldloc.0 L_0017: ldfld char Program/<>c__DisplayClass1::charToFind
I should also add that Visual Studio s editor, IntelliSense support, code snippet support, templates, extensibility system, debugging system, and various other tools also contribute to making the platform compelling for developers . However, I leave this out of the main discussion because it has no impact on the behavior of the code at runtime .
20 Exceptions and State Management
L_001c: L_0021: L_0022: L_0023: L_0024: L_0029: L_002a: L_002b: L_002c: L_002d: L_0032: L_0033: L_0034: L_0035: L_003a: L_003b: L_003c: L_003d: L_0042: L_0047: L_0048: L_004d: L_0052: L_0057: L_005c: L_005d: L_005e: L_0063: L_0064: L_006a: L_006f:
L_0074: L_0079: }
box char stelem.ref ldloc.1 ldc.i4.1 ldstr ": " stelem.ref ldloc.1 ldc.i4.2 ldarg.0 callvirt instance class [mscorlib]System.Type [mscorlib]System.Object::GetType() stelem.ref ldloc.1 ldc.i4.3 ldsfld string [mscorlib]System.String::Empty stelem.ref ldloc.1 ldc.i4.4 ldc.i4 0x200 newobj instance void [mscorlib]System.Decimal::.ctor(int32) ldarg.0 callvirt instance int64 [mscorlib]System.IO.Stream::get_Position() call valuetype [mscorlib]System.Decimal [mscorlib]System.Decimal::op_Implicit(int64) call valuetype [mscorlib]System.Decimal [mscorlib]System.Decimal::op_Addition (valuetype [mscorlib]System.Decimal, valuetype [mscorlib]System.Decimal) box [mscorlib]System.Decimal stelem.ref ldloc.1 call string [mscorlib]System.String::Concat(object[]) ldloc.0 ldftn instance bool Program/<>c__DisplayClass1::<M>b__0(char) newobj instance void [mscorlib]System.Func`2<char, bool>::.ctor(object, native int) call class [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable`1<!!0> [System.Core]System.Linq.Enumerable::Where<char>( class [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable`1<!!0>, class [mscorlib]System.Func`2<!!0, bool>) call !!0[] [System.Core]System.Linq.Enumerable::ToArray<char> (class [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable`1<!!0>) ret
As you can see, an OutOfMemoryException is possible when constructing the <>c__DisplayClass1 class (a compiler-generated type), the Object[] array, the Func delegate, and boxing the char and Decimal . Memory is also allocated internally when Concat, Where, and ToArray are called . Constructing the Decimal instance could cause its type constructor to be invoked resulting in a TypeInitializationException .5 And then, there are the implicit calls to Decimal s op_Implicit operator and its op_Addition operator methods, which could do anything including throwing an OverflowException .
By the way, System.Char, System.String, System.Type, and System.IO.Stream all define class constructors which could all potentially cause a TypeInitializationException to be thrown at some point in this application .
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