barcode printing vb.net A B D F G I K L M N O in Visual C#.NET

Make PDF 417 in Visual C#.NET A B D F G I K L M N O

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Automatic Memory Management (Garbage Collection)
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objects L through O . And while running, the application stops using objects G, L, and M, making them all unreachable . The heap now looks like Figure 21-12 .
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A B D F G I K L M N O
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Generation 1
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Generation 0
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FIguRE 21-12 New objects are allocated in generation 0; generation 1 has more garbage
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Let s say that allocating object P causes generation 0 to exceed its budget, causing a garbage collection to occur . Because the memory occupied by all of the objects in generation 1 is less than 2 MB, the garbage collector again decides to collect only generation 0, ignoring the unreachable objects in generation 1 (objects B and G) . After the collection, the heap looks like Figure 21-13 .
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A B D F G I K N O Generation 0
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Generation 1
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FIguRE 21-13 After three collections, generation 0 survivors are promoted to generation 1 (growing the size
of generation 1 again); generation 0 is empty
In Figure 21-13, you see that generation 1 keeps growing slowly . In fact, let s say that generation 1 has now grown to the point in which all of the objects in it occupy 2 MB of memory . At this point, the application continues running (because a garbage collection just finished) and starts allocating objects P through S, which fill generation 0 up to its budget . The heap now looks like Figure 21-14 .
A B D F G I K N O P Q R S
Generation 1
Generation 0
FIguRE 21-14 New objects are allocated in generation 0; generation 1 has more garbage
When the application attempts to allocate object T, generation 0 is full, and a garbage collection must start . This time, however, the garbage collector sees that the objects in generation 1 are occupying so much memory that generation 1 s 2-MB budget has been reached . Over the several generation 0 collections, it s likely that a number of objects in generation 1 have become unreachable (as in our example) . So this time, the garbage collector decides to examine all of the objects in generation 1 and generation 0 . After both generations have been garbage collected, the heap now looks like Figure 21-15 .
Part IV D F
Core Facilities I N O Q S Generation 0
Generation 2
Generation 1
FIguRE 21-15 After four collections: generation 1 survivors are promoted to generation 2, generation 0
survivors are promoted to generation 1, and generation 0 is empty
As before, any objects that were in generation 0 that survived the garbage collection are now in generation 1; any objects that were in generation 1 that survived the collection are now in generation 2 . As always, generation 0 is empty immediately after a garbage collection and is where new objects will be allocated . Objects in generation 2 are objects that the garbage collector has examined two or more times . There might have been several collections, but the objects in generation 1 are examined only when generation 1 reaches its budget, which usually requires several garbage collections of generation 0 . The managed heap supports only three generations: generation 0, generation 1, and generation 2; there is no generation 3 .3 When the CLR initializes, it selects budgets for all three generations . As I mentioned earlier, the budget for generation 0 is about 256 KB, and the budget for generation 1 is about 2 MB . The budget for generation 2 is around 10 MB . Again, the budget sizes are selected to improve performance . The larger the budget, the less frequently a garbage collection will occur . And again, the performance improvement comes because of the initial assumptions: new objects have short lifetimes, and older objects are likely to live longer . The CLR s garbage collector is a self-tuning collector . This means that the garbage collector learns about your application s behavior whenever it performs a garbage collection . For example, if your application constructs a lot of objects and uses them for a very short period of time, it s possible that garbage collecting generation 0 will reclaim a lot of memory . In fact, it s possible that the memory for all objects in generation 0 can be reclaimed . If the garbage collector sees that there are very few surviving objects after collecting generation 0, it might decide to reduce the budget of generation 0 from 256 KB to 128 KB . This reduction in the allotted space will mean that garbage collections occur more frequently but will require less work for the garbage collector, so your process s working set will be small . In fact, if all objects in generation 0 are garbage, a garbage collection doesn t have to compact any memory; it can simply set NextObjPtr back to the beginning of generation 0, and then the garbage collection is performed . Wow, this is a fast way to reclaim memory! Note The garbage collector works extremely well for applications with threads that sit idle at
the top of their stack most of the time . Then, when the thread has something to do, it wakes up, creates a bunch of short-lived objects, returns, and then goes back to sleep . Many applications follow this architecture, including Windows Forms, WPF, ASP .NET Web Forms, and XML Web service applications .
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