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Table 12.1
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Extending continuous integration
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Having problems with slow builds Use one of these techniques. Problem Solution Delete old code. Scale using multiple build agents. Categorize your tests, and don t run them all every time. Categorize your builds.
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Slow compile time Slow build machine Slow tests Overall slow build
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Now you know the obvious solutions for speeding up the build. But how about darker lore Let s examine the seven deadly sins of slow builds.
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12.2 Seven deadly sins of slow softw are builds
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When you get right down to it, serialized builds, where one step has to complete before the next begins, are slow. When your build runs slowly, you may have one or more of the seven deadly sins of slow software builds. This is a term coined by Usman Muzaffar of Electric Cloud,1 a company that provides high-end build-management and build-analysis software. The seven deadly sins lead to serialized processes. Why not speed up that large project or multiple projects by running things in parallel as much as possible Table 12.2 lists the seven deadly sins and contrasts them with good guidelines.
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Table 12.2 The seven deadly sins of slow builds Deadly sin Make at the bottom Targets with side effects Multiple updated files Pass-based builds Output in the source directory Monoliths Bad dependencies Good guideline Let make drive your build. Update only one file in a make rule. Write each file only once during a build. Visit each directory once. Write output to its own directory. Split long jobs into multiple targets. Specify relationships in a make file.
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Now that you ve been introduced to the seven deadly sins, let s dig into them to understand what they mean and how you can counteract them with the good guidelines. We ll paraphrase Usman s explanations of the seven deadly sins.
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Electric Cloud Commander provides functionality similar to TeamCity and CruiseControl.NET. For more information, visit www.electriccloud.com.
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Seven deadly sins of slow softw are builds
12.2.1 M aking a build script drive your build
Throughout this book, we ve looked at MSBuild. Have you enjoyed spelunking into the XML that makes MSBuild run We didn t think so. You may think it would be easier to wrap MSBuild in a cool PowerShell or Python script and have it call MSBuild multiple times. The problem is, you re not letting MSBuild do the things it does best, such as comparing timestamps on files and dealing with dependencies. MSBuild is designed to understand what you want to happen, and then go back and figure out how to do it. When externally scripted, you make multiple calls to MSBuild. You re telling it not only what you want, but how to get there. This causes unnecessary serialization. The external script is at the top of the process, not MSBuild. You want MSBuild to drive the actual compile, not have some external script do it. There are two ways to fix this. First, you can remove the external scripts and put MSBuild back at the top. But this approach can lead to monoliths, where you have one big job; or it can create bad dependencies. These are two of the seven deadly sins. Don t have a single target in the MSBuild script; use multiple targets to break things up. The second approach is a much better solution. It s called separation of powers. Don t have MSBuild do everything for you; if you need to do some setup work, such as checking out code or cleaning up folders from a previous build, do so outside of your MSBuild script. If you ve followed us through this book, that s exactly what we ve done. Now that the first sin has been resolved, let s look at the second: targets with side effects.
12.2.2 Getting rid of build-script targets side effects
Do you need to pass data from one build target (see chapter 3 for details) to another For example, does one target get the new version number and then pass it to another Or does a target figure out if you re doing a debug or release build, only to send that information to another target This sounds innocent enough, doesn t it The problem is that you have serialization, where one build target implicitly calls another. To make it worse, this serialization is hidden. And even worse, it s often impossible to tell if it isn t working properly. But wait: there s more bad news. If the two targets run in parallel, things can fail unpredictably. In this case, you should introduce serialization with an explicit dependency. Or, even better, merge the multiple targets into a single target. The next sin occurs when you update a file more than once.
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