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21. Collaborative Construction
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21.1 Overview of Collaborative Development Practices
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Collaborative construction refers to pair programming, formal inspections, informal technical reviews, and document reading, as well as other techniques in which developers share responsibility for creating code and other workproducts. At my company, the term collaborative construction was coined by Matt Peloquin about 2000. The term appears to have been coined independently at other companies in the same timeframe. All collaborative construction techniques, despite their differences, are based on the idea that developers are blind to some of the trouble spots in their work, that other people don t have the same blind spots, and that it s beneficial to have someone else look at their work.
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Collaborative Construction Complements Other Quality-Assurance Techniques
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The primary purpose of collaborative construction is to improve software quality. As noted in 22, software testing has limited effectiveness when used alone the average defect-detection rate is only about 30 percent for unit testing, 35 percent for integration testing, and 35% for low-volume beta testing. In contrast, the average effectivenesses of design and code inspections are 55 and 60 percent (Jones 1996). The auxiliary benefit of collaborative construction is that it decreases development time, which in turn lowers development costs. Early reports on pair programming suggest that it can achieve a code-quality level similar to formal inspections (Shull et al 2002). The cost of full-up pair programming is probably higher than the cost of solo development on the order of 10-25% higher but the reduction in development time appears to be on the order of 45%, which in some cases may be a decisive advantage over solo development (Boehm and Turner 2004), although not over inspections which have produced similar results. Technical reviews have been studied much longer than pair programming, and case studies of their results have been impressive: IBM found that each hour of inspection prevented about 100 hours of related work (testing and defect correction) (Holland 1999). Raytheon reduced its cost of defect correction (rework) from about 40% of total project cost to about 20% through an initiative that focused on inspections (Haley 1996).
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21. Collaborative Construction
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Hewlett-Packard reported that its inspection program saved an estimated $21.5 million per year (Grady and Van Slack 1994). Imperial Chemical Industries found that the cost of maintaining a portfolio of about 400 programs was only about 10% as high as the cost of maintaining a similar set of programs that had not been inspected (Gilb and Graham 1993). A study of large programs found that each hour spent on inspections avoided an average of 33 hours of maintenance work, and inspections were up to 20 times more efficient than testing (Russell 1991). In a software-maintenance organization, 55 percent of one-line maintenance changes were in error before code reviews were introduced. After reviews were introduced, only 2 percent of the changes were in error (Freedman and Weinberg 1990). When all changes were considered, 95 percent were correct the first time after reviews were introduced. Before reviews were introduced, under 20 percent were correct the first time. A group of 11 programs were developed by the same group of people and all were released to production. The first 5 were developed without reviews. and averaged 4.5 errors per 100 lines of code. The other 6 were inspected and averaged only 0.82 errors per 100 lines of code. Reviews cut the errors by over 80 percent (Freedman and Weinberg 1990).
Capers Jones reports that all of the software projects he has studied that have achieved 99 percent defect removal rates or better have used formal inspections; none of the projects that achieved less than 75 percent defect removal efficiency used formal inspections (Jones 2000). These results dramatically illustrate the General Principle of Software Quality, which holds that reducing the number of defects in the software also improves development time. Various studies have shown that in addition to being more effective at catching errors than testing, collaborative practices find different kinds of errors than testing does (Myers 1978; Basili, Selby, and Hutchens 1986). As Karl Wiegers points out, A human reviewer can spot unclear error messages, inadequate comments, hard-coded variable values, and repeated code patterns that should be consolidated. Testing won t (Wiegers 2002). A secondary effect is that when people know their work will be reviewed, they scrutinize it more carefully. Thus, even when testing is done effectively, reviews or other kinds of collaboration are needed as part of a comprehensive quality program.
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