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22. Developer Testing
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Developer Testing
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Contents 22.1 Role of Developer Testing in Software Quality
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22.2 Recommended Approach to Developer Testing 22.3 Bag of Testing Tricks 22.4 Typical Errors 22.5 Test-Support Tools 22.6 Improving Your Testing 22.7 Keeping Test Records
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Related Topics The software-quality landscape: 20
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Collaborative construction practices: 21 Debugging: 23 Integration: 29 Prerequisites to construction: 3 TESTING IS THE MOST POPULAR quality-improvement activity a practice supported by a wealth of industrial and academic research and by commercial experience. Software is tested in numerous ways, some of which are typically performed by developers and some of which are more commonly performed by specialized test personnel: Unit testing is the execution of a complete class, routine, or small program that has been written by a single programmer or team of programmers, which is tested in isolation from the more complete system. Component testing is the execution of a class, package, small program, or other program element that involves the work of multiple programmers or programming teams, which is tested in isolation from the more complete system.
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22. Developer Testing
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Integration testing is the combined execution of two or more classes, packages, components, subsystems that have been created by multiple programmers or programming teams. This kind of testing typically starts as soon as there are two classes to test and continues until the entire system is complete. Regression testing is the repetition of previously executed test cases for the purpose of finding defects in software that previously passed the same set of tests. System testing is the execution of the software in its final configuration, including integration with other software and hardware systems. It tests for security, performance, resource loss, timing problems, and other issues that can t be tested at lower levels of integration. In this chapter, testing refers to testing by the developer which typically consists of unit tests, component tests, and integration tests, and which may sometimes consist of regression tests and system tests. Numerous additional kinds of testing are performed by specialized test personnel and are rarely performed by developers (including beta tests, customer-acceptance tests, performance tests, configuration tests, platform tests, stress tests, usability tests, and so on). These kinds of testing are not discussed further in this chapter. Testing is usually broken into two broad categories: black box testing and white box (or glass box) testing. Black box testing refers to tests in which the tester cannot see the inner workings of the item being tested. This obviously does not apply when you test code that you have written! White box testing refers to tests in which the tester is aware of the inner workings of the item being tested. This is the kind of testing that you as a developer use to test your own code. Both black box and white box testing have strengths and weaknesses; this chapter focuses on white box testing because that is the kind of testing that developers perform. Some programmers use the terms testing and debugging interchangeably, but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. Testing is a means of detecting errors. Debugging is a means of diagnosing and correcting the root causes of errors that have already been detected. This chapter deals exclusively with error detection. Error correction is discussed in detail in 23, Debugging. The whole topic of testing is much larger than the subject of testing during construction. System testing, stress testing, black box testing, and other topics for test specialists are discussed in the Additional Resources section at the end of the chapter.
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22. Developer Testing
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22.1 Role of Developer Testing in Software Quality
Testing is an important part of any software-quality program, and in many cases it s the only part. This is unfortunate, because collaborative development practices in their various forms have been shown to find a higher percentage of errors than testing does, and they cost less than half as much per error found as testing does (Card 1987, Russell 1991, Kaplan 1995). Individual testing steps (unit test, component test, and integration test) typically find less than 50% of the errors present each. The combination of testing steps often finds less than 60% of the errors present (Jones 1998). If you were to list a set of software-development activities on Sesame Street and ask, Which of these things is not like the others , the answer would be Testing. Testing is a hard activity for most developers to swallow for several reasons: Testing s goal runs counter to the goals of other development activities. The goal is to find errors. A successful test is one that breaks the software. The goal of every other development activity is to prevent errors and keep the software from breaking. Testing can never completely prove the absence of errors. If you have tested extensively and found thousands of errors, does it mean that you ve found all the errors or that you have thousands more to find An absence of errors could mean ineffective or incomplete test cases as easily as it could mean perfect software. Testing by itself does not improve software quality. Test results are an indicator of quality, but in and of themselves, they don t improve it. Trying to improve software quality by increasing the amount of testing is like trying to lose weight by weighing yourself more often. What you eat before you step onto the scale determines how much you will weigh, and the softwaredevelopment techniques you use determine how many errors testing will find. If you want to lose weight, don t buy a new scale; change your diet. If you want to improve your software, don t just test more; develop better. Testing requires you to assume that you ll find errors in your code. If you assume you won t, you probably won t, but only because you ll have set up a self-fulfilling prophecy. If you execute the program hoping that it won t have any errors, it will be too easy to overlook the errors you find. In a study that has become a classic, Glenford Myers had a group of experienced programmers test a program with 15 known defects. The average programmer found only 5 of the 15 errors. The best found only 9. The main source of undetected errors was that erroneous output was not examined
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