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24. Refactoring
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Contents 24.1 Kinds of Software Evolution
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24.2 Introduction to Refactoring 24.3 Reasons to Refactor 24.4 Specific Refactorings 24.5 Refactoring Safely 24.6 Refactoring Strategies
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Related Topics Tips for fixing defects: Section 23.3
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Code tuning approach: Section 25.6 High-level design: 5 High-quality classes: 6 High-quality routines: 7 Collaborative construction: 21 Developer testing: 22 Areas likely to change: Identify Areas Likely to Change in Section 5.3
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All successful software gets changed. Fred Brooks
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6 HARD DATA
MYTH: A WELL-MANAGED SOFTWARE PROJECT conducts methodical requirements development and defines a stable list of the program s responsibilities. Design follows requirements, and it is done carefully so that coding can proceed linearly, from start to finish, implying that most of the code can be written once, tested, and forgotten. According to the myth, the only time that the code is significantly modified is during the software-maintenance phase, something that happens only after the initial version of a system has been delivered.
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Reality: Code evolves substantially during its initial development. Many of the changes seen during initial coding are at least as dramatic as changes seen during maintenance. Coding, debugging, and unit testing consume between 30 to 65 percent of the effort on a typical project, depending on the project s size. (See 27, How Program Size Affects Construction, for details.) If coding and unit testing were straightforward processes, they would consume no more than 20-30 percent of the total effort on a project. Even on well-managed projects, however, requirements change by about one to four percent per month (Jones 2000). Requirements changes invariably cause corresponding code changes sometimes substantial code changes. Another Reality: Modern development practices increase the potential for code changes during construction. In older life cycles, the focus successful or not was on avoiding code changes. More modern approaches move away from coding predictability. Current approaches are more code-centered, and over the life of a project, you can expect code to evolve more than ever.
7 KEY POINT
24.1 Kinds of Software Evolution
Software evolution is like biological evolution in that some mutations are beneficial and many mutations are not. Good software evolution produces code whose development mimics the ascent from monkeys to Neanderthals to our current exalted state as software developers. Evolutionary forces sometimes beat on a program the other way, however, knocking the program into a deevolutionary spiral. The key distinction between kinds of software evolution is whether the program s quality improves or degrades under modification. If you fix errors with logical duct tape and superstition, quality degrades. If you treat modifications as opportunities to tighten up the original design of the program, quality improves. If you see that program quality is degrading, that s like a canary in a mine shaft that has stopped singing. It s a warning that the program is evolving in the wrong direction. A second distinction in the kinds of software evolution is the one between changes made during construction and those made during maintenance. These two kinds of evolution differ in several ways. Construction changes are usually made by the original developers, usually before the program has been completely forgotten. The system isn t yet on line, so the pressure to finish changes is only schedule pressure it s not 500 angry users wondering why their system is down. For the same reason, changes during construction can be more freewheeling the system is in a more dynamic state, and the penalty for making
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mistakes is low. These circumstances imply a style of software evolution that s different from what you d find during software maintenance.
Philosophy of Software Evolution
There is no code so big, twisted, or complex that maintenance can t make it worse. Gerald Weinberg
A common weakness in programmers approaches to software evolution is that it goes on as an un-self-conscious process. If you recognize that evolution during development is an inevitable and important phenomenon and plan for it, you can use it to your advantage. Evolution is at once hazardous and an opportunity to approach perfection. When you have to make a change, strive to improve the code so that future changes are easier. You never know as much when you begin writing a program as you do afterward. When you have a chance to revise a program, use what you ve learned to improve it. Make both your initial code and your changes with future changes in mind. The Cardinal Rule of Software Evolution is that evolution should improve the internal quality of the program. The following sections describe how to accomplish this.
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