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24.2 Introduction to Refactoring
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The key strategy in achieving The Cardinal Rule of Software Evolution is refactoring, which Martin Fowler defines as a change made to the internal structure of the software to make it easier to understand and cheaper to modify without changing its observable behavior (Fowler 1999). The word refactoring in modern programming grew out of Larry Constantine s original use of the word factoring in structured programming, which referred to decomposing a program into its constituent parts as much as possible (Yourdon and Constantine 1979).
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24.3 Reasons to Refactor
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Sometimes code degenerates under maintenance, and sometimes the code just wasn t very good in the first place. In either case, here are some warning signs sometimes called smells (Fowler 1999) that indicate where refactorings are needed.
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Code is duplicated Duplicated code almost always represents a failure to fully factor the design in the first place. Duplicate code sets you up to make parallel modifications
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24. Refactoring
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whenever you have to make changes in one place, you have to make parallel changes in another place. It also violates what Andrew Hunt and Dave Thomas refer to as the DRY principle Don t Repeat Yourself (2000). I think David Parnas said it best: Copy and Paste is a design error (McConnell 1998b).
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A routine is too long In object-oriented programming, routines longer than a screen are rarely needed, and usually represent the attempt to force-fit a structured programming foot into an object-oriented shoe.
One of my clients was assigned the task of breaking up a legacy system s longest routine, which was more than 12,000 lines long. With effort, he was able to reduce the size of the largest routine to only about 4,000 lines. One way to improve a system is to increase its modularity increase the number of well-defined, well-named routines that do one thing and do it well. When changes lead you to revisit a section of code, take the opportunity to check the modularity of the routines in that section. If a routine would be cleaner if part of it were made into a separate routine, create a separate routine.
A loop is too long or too deeply nested Loop innards tend to be good candidates for being converted into routines, which helps to better factor the code and to reduce the complexity of the loop. A class has poor cohesion If you find a class that takes ownership for a hodge-podge of unrelated responsibilities, that class should be broken up into multiple classes, each of which has responsibility for a cohesive set of responsibilities. A class interface does not provide a consistent level of abstraction Even classes that begin life with a cohesive interface can lose their original consistency. Class interfaces tend to morph over time as a result of modifications that are made in the heat of the moment and that favor expediency to interface integrity. Eventually the class interface becomes a Frankensteinian maintenance monster that does little to improve the intellectual manageability of the program. A parameter list has too many parameters Well-factored programs tend to have many small, well-defined routines that don t need large parameter lists. A long parameter list is a warning that the abstraction of the routine interface has not been well thought out. Changes within a class tend to be compartmentalized Sometimes a class has two or more distinct responsibilities. When that happens you find yourself changing either one part of the class or another part of the class but few changes affect both parts of the class. That s a sign that the class
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24. Refactoring
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should be cleaved into multiple classes along the lines of the separate responsibilities.
Changes require parallel modifications to multiple classes I saw one project that had a checklist of about 15 classes that had to be modified whenever a new kind of output was added. When you find yourself routinely making changes to the same set of classes, that suggests the code in those classes could be rearranged so that changes affect only one class. In my experience, this is a hard ideal to accomplish, but it is nonetheless a good goal. Inheritance hierarchies have to be modified in parallel Finding yourself making a subclass of one class every time you make a subclass of another class is a special kind of parallel modification. case statements have to be modified in parallel Case statements are not inherently bad, but if you find yourself making parallel modifications to similar case statements in multiple parts of the program, you should ask whether inheritance might be a better approach. Related data items that are used together are not organized into classes If you find yourself repeatedly manipulating the same set of data items, you should ask whether those manipulations should be combined into a class of their own. A routine uses more features of another class than of its own class This suggests that the routine should be moved into the other class and then invoked by its old class. A primitive data type is overloaded Primitive data types can be used to represent an infinite number of real-world entities. If your program uses a primitive data type like an integer to represent a common entity such as money, consider creating a simple Money class so that the compiler can perform type checking on Money variables, so that you can add safety checks on the values assigned to money, and so on. If both Money and Temperature are integers, the compiler won t warn you about erroneous assignments like bankBalance = recordLowTemperature. A class doesn t do very much Sometimes the result of refactoring code is that an old class doesn t have much to do. If a class doesn t seem to be carrying its weight, ask if you should assign all of that class s responsibilities to other classes and eliminate the class altogether.
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