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6 CROSS-REFERENCE
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One problem with phased integration is that when the classes in a system are put together for the first time, new problems inevitably surface and the causes of the problems could be anywhere. Since you have a large number of classes that have never worked together before, the culprit might be a poorly tested classes, an error in the interface between two classes, or an error caused by an interaction between two classes. All classes are suspect.
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29. Integration
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The uncertainty about the location of any of the specific problems is compounded by the fact that all the problems suddenly present themselves at once. This forces you to deal not only with problems caused by interactions between classes but with problems that are hard to diagnose because the problems themselves interact. For this reason, another name for phased integration is big bang integration.
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P doc oorl um y int erf ente d ac e s
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Figure 29-2 Phased integration is also called big bang integration for a good reason!
Phased integration can t begin until late in the project, after all the classes have been developer-tested. When the classes are finally combined and errors surface by the score, programmers immediately go into panicky debugging mode rather than methodical error detection and correction. For small programs no, for tiny programs phased integration might be the best approach. If the program has only two or three classes, phased integration might save you time, if you re lucky. But in most cases, another approach is better.
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29. Integration
Page 5
Incremental Integration
1 CROSS-REFERENCE
2 aphors appropriate for
incremental integration are discussed in Software Oyster Farming: System 4 Accretion and Software 5 Construction: Building 6 Software in Section 2.3.
In incremental integration, you write and test a program in small pieces and then combine the pieces one at a time. In this one-piece-at-a-time approach to integration, you follow these steps: 1. Develop a small, functional part of the system. It can be the smallest functional part, the hardest part, a key part, or some combination. Thoroughly test and debug it. It will serve as a skeleton on which to hang the muscles, nerves, and skin that make up the remaining parts of the system. 2. Design, code, test, and debug a class. 3. Integrate the new class with the skeleton. Test and debug the combination of skeleton and new class. Make sure the combination works before you add any new classes. If work remains to be done, repeat the process starting at step 2. Occasionally, you might want to integrate units larger than a single class. If a component has been thoroughly tested, for example, and each of its classes put through a mini-integration, you can integrate the whole component and still be doing incremental integration. The system grows and gains momentum as you add pieces to it in the same way that a snowball grows and gains momentum when it rolls down a hill.
Incremental Integration
S nowballing Integration
F29xx03
Figure 29-3 Incremental integration helps a project build momentum, like a snowball going down a hill.
Benefits of Incremental Integration
The incremental approach offers many advantages over the traditional phased approach regardless of which incremental strategy you use.
de Complete
29. Integration
Page 6
8 HARD DATA
Errors are easy to locate When new problems surface during incremental integration, the new class is obviously at fault. Either its interface to the rest of the program contains an error or its interaction with a previously integrated class produces an error. Either way, you know exactly where to look. Moreover, simply because you have fewer problems at once, you reduce the risk that multiple problems will interact or that one problem will mask another. The more interface errors you tend to have, the more this benefit of incremental integration will help your projects. An accounting of errors for one project revealed that 39 percent were intermodule interface errors (Basili and Perricone 1984). Since developers on many projects spend up to 50 percent of their time debugging, maximizing debugging effectiveness by making errors easy to locate provides benefits in quality and productivity.
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