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Pure top-down integration leaves exercising the tricky system interfaces until last. If system interfaces are buggy or a performance problem, you d usually like to get to them long before the end of the project. It s not unusual for a low-level problem to bubble its way to the top of the system, causing high-level changes and reducing the benefit of earlier integration work. Minimize the bubbling problem through early careful developer testing and performance analysis of the classes that exercise system interfaces. Another problem with pure top-down integration is that it takes a dump truck full of stubs to integrate from the top down. Many low-level classes haven t been integrated, which implies that a large number of stubs will be needed during intermediate steps in integration. Stubs are problematic in that, as test code, they are more likely to contain errors than the more carefully designed production code. Errors in the new stubs that support a new class defeat the purpose of incremental integration, which is to restrict the source of errors to one new class.
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Topdown integration is related to top-down design in name only. For details on top-down design, see Top-Down and Bottom-Up Design Approaches in Section 5.4.
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Top-down integration is also nearly impossible to implement purely. In topdown integration done by the book, you start at the top (call it Level 1) and then integrate all the classes at the next level (Level 2). When you ve integrated all the classes from Level 2, and not before, you integrate the classes from Level 3. The rigidity in pure top-down integration is completely arbitrary. It s hard to imagine anyone going to the trouble of using pure top-down integration. Most people use a hybrid approach such as integrating from the top down in sections instead. Finally, you can t use top-down integration if the collection of classes doesn t have a top. In many interactive systems, the location of the top is subjective. In many systems, the user interface is the top. In other systems, main() is the top. A good alternative to pure top-down integration is the vertical-slice approach shown in Figure 29-6. In this approach, the system is implemented top-down in sections, perhaps fleshing out areas of functionality one by one, and then moving to the next area.
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S tart
Finish
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Figure 29-6 As an alternative to proceeding strictly top to bottom, you can integrate from the top down in vertical slices.
Even though pure top-down integration isn t workable, thinking about it will help you decide on a general approach. Some of the benefits and hazards that apply to a pure top-down approach apply, less obviously, to looser top-down approaches like vertical-slice integration, so keep them in mind.
Bottom-Up Integration
In bottom-up integration, you write and integrate the classes at the bottom of the hierarchy first. Adding the low-level classes one at a time rather than all at once is what makes bottom-up integration an incremental integration strategy. You write test drivers to exercise the low-level classes initially and add classes to the test-driver scaffolding as they re developed. As you add higher-level classes, you replace driver classes with real ones. Here s the order in which classes are integrated in the bottom-up approach:
Finish
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Figure 29-7 In bottom-up integration, you integrate classes at the bottom first, at the top last.
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29. Integration
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Bottom-up integration provides a limited set of incremental-integration advantages. It restricts the possible sources of error to the single class being integrated, so errors are easy to locate. Integration can start early in the project. Bottom-up integration also exercises potentially troublesome system interfaces early. Since system limitations often determine whether you can meet the system s goals, making sure the system has done a full set of calisthenics is worth the trouble. What are the problems with bottom-up integration The main problem is that it leaves integration of the major, high-level system interfaces until last. If the system has conceptual design problems at the higher levels, construction won t find them until all the detailed work has been done. If the design must be changed significantly, some of the low-level work might have to be discarded. Bottom-up integration requires you to complete the design of the whole system before you start integration. If you don t, assumptions that needn t have controlled the design might end up deeply embedded in low-level code, giving rise to the awkward situation in which you design high-level classes to work around problems in low-level ones. Letting low-level details drive the design of higher-level classes contradicts principles of information hiding and objectoriented design. The problems of integrating higher-level classes are but a teardrop in a rainstorm compared to the problems you ll have if you don t complete the design of high-level classes before you begin low-level coding. As with top-down integration, pure bottom-up integration is rare, and you can use a hybrid approach instead, including integrating in sections.
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