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Figure 29-8 As an alternative to proceeding purely bottom to top, you can integrate from the bottom up in sections. This blurs the line between bottom-up integration and featureoriented integration, which is described later in this chapter.
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29. Integration
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Sandwich Integration
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The problems with pure top-down and pure bottom-up integration have led some experts to recommend a sandwich approach (Myers 1976). You first integrate the high-level business-object classes at the top of the hierarchy. Then you integrate the device-interface classes and widely used utility classes at the bottom. These high-level and low-level classes are the bread of the sandwich. You leave the middle-level classes until later. These make up the meat, cheese, and tomatoes of the sandwich. If you re a vegetarian, they might make up the tofu and bean sprouts of the sandwich, but the author of sandwich integration is silent on this point maybe his mouth was full. Here s an illustration of the sandwich approach:
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Figure 29-9 In sandwich integration, you integrate top-level and widely used bottom-level classes first, and save middle-level classes for last.
This approach avoids the rigidity of pure bottom-up or top-down integration. It integrates the often-troublesome classes first and has the potential to minimize the amount of scaffolding you ll need. It s a realistic, practical approach. The next approach is similar and more sophisticated.
Risk-Oriented Integration
Risk-oriented integration is also called hard part first integration. It s like sandwich integration in that it seeks to avoid the problems inherent in pure topdown or pure bottom-up integration. Coincidentally, it also tends to integrate the classes at the top and the bottom first, saving the middle-level classes for last. The motivation, however, is different. In risk-oriented integration, you identify the level of risk associated with each class. You decide which will be the most challenging parts to implement, and
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you implement them first. Experience indicates that top-level interfaces are risky, so they are often at the top of the risk list. System interfaces, usually at the bottom level of the hierarchy, are also risky, so they re also at the top of the risk list. In addition, you might know of classes in the middle that will be challenging. Perhaps a class implements a poorly understood algorithm or has ambitious performance goals. Such classes can also be identified as high risks and integrated relatively early. The remainder of the code, the easy stuff, can wait until later. Some of it will probably turn out to be harder than you thought, but that s unavoidable. Here s an illustration of risk-oriented integration:
Most risk: Do first.
Least risk: Do last.
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Figure 29-10 In risk-oriented integration, you integrate classes that you expect to be most troublesome first; you implement easier classes later.
Feature-Oriented Integration
Another approach is to integrate one feature at a time. The term feature doesn t refer to anything fancy just an identifiable function of the system you re integrating. If you re writing a word processor, a feature might be displaying underlining on the screen or reformatting the document automatically something like that. When the feature to be integrated is bigger than a single class, the increment in incremental integration is bigger than a single class. This diminishes the benefit of incrementalism a little in that it reduces your certainty about the source of new errors, but if you have thoroughly tested the classes that implement the new feature before you integrate them, that s only a small disadvantage. You can use the incremental integration strategies recursively by integrating small pieces to form features and then incrementally integrating features to form a system.
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You ll usually want to start with a skeleton you ve chosen for its ability to support the other features. In an interactive system, the first feature might be the interactive menu system. You can hang the rest of the features on the feature that you integrate first. Here s how it looks graphically:
Feature 1 skeleton (menus, perhaps)
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