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C++ Example of Creating a Type
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typedef float Coordinate; // for coordinate variables
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This type definition declares a new type, Coordinate, that s functionally the same as the type float. To use the new type, you declare variables with it just as you would with a predefined type such as float. Here s an example:
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C++ Example of Using the Type You ve Created
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Routine1( ... ) { Coordinate latitude; Coordinate longitude; Coordinate elevation; ... // latitude in degrees // longitude in degrees // elevation in meters from earth center
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12. Fundamental Data Types
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} ... Routine2( ... ) { Coordinate x; Coordinate y; Coordinate z; ... } // x coordinate in meters // y coordinate in meters // z coordinate in meters
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In this code, the variables latitude, longitude, elevation, x, y, and z are all declared to be of type Coordinate. Now suppose that the program changes and you find that you need to use double-precision variables for coordinates after all. Because you defined a type specifically for coordinate data, all you have to change is the type definition. And you have to change it in only one place: in the typedef statement. Here s the changed type definition:
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C++ Example of Changed Type Definition
typedef double Coordinate; // for coordinate variables
1 The original float has changed to double.
Here s a second example this one in Pascal. Suppose you re creating a payroll system in which employee names are a maximum of 30 characters long. Your users have told you that no one ever has a name longer than 30 characters. Do you hard-code the number 30 throughout your program If you do, you trust your users a lot more than I trust mine! A better approach is to define a type for employee names:
Pascal Example of Creating a Type for Employee Names
Type EmployeeName_t = array[ 1..30 ] of char;
When a string or an array is involved, it s usually wise to define a named constant that indicates the length of the string or array and then use the named constant in the type definition. You ll find many places in your program in which to use the constant this is just the first place in which you ll use it. Here s how it looks:
Pascal Example of Better Type Creation
Const
7 Here s the declaration of the named constant. Here s where the named constant is used.
NAMELENGTH_C = 30; ... Type EmployeeName_t = array[ 1..NAMELENGTH_C ] of char;
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12. Fundamental Data Types
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A more powerful example would combine the idea of creating your own types with the idea of information hiding. In some cases, the information you want to hide is information about the type of the data. The coordinates example in C++ is about halfway to information hiding. If you always use Coordinate rather than float or double, you effectively hide the type of the data. In C++, this is about all the information hiding the language does for you. For the rest, you or subsequent users of your code have to have the discipline not to look up the definition of Coordinate. C++ gives you figurative, rather than literal, information-hiding ability. Other languages such as Ada go a step further and support literal information hiding. Here s how the Coordinate code fragment would look in an Ada package that declares it:
Ada Example of Hiding Details of a Type Inside a Package
package Transformation is
5 This statement declares Coordinate as private to the package.
type Coordinate is private; ...
Here s how Coordinate looks in another package, one that uses it:
Ada Example of Using a Type from Another Package
with Transformation; ... procedure Routine1(...) ... latitude: begin -- statements using latitude and longitude ... end Routine1; Coordinate; longitude: Coordinate;
Notice that the Coordinate type is declared as private in the package specification. That means that the only part of the program that knows the definition of the Coordinate type is the private part of the Transformation package. In a development environment with a group of programmers, you could distribute only the package specification, which would make it harder for a programmer working on another package to look up the underlying type of Coordinate. The information would be literally hidden. Languages like C++ that require you to distribute the definition of Coordinate in header files undermine true information hiding. These examples have illustrated several reasons to create your own types:
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