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13.1 Structures
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The term structure refers to data that s built up from other types. Because arrays are a special case, they are treated separately in 12. This section deals with user-created structured data structs in C and C++ and Structures in Visual Basic. In Java and C++, classes also sometimes perform as structures (when the class consists entirely of public data members with no public routines). You ll generally want to create classes rather than structures so that you can take advantage of the functionality and privacy offered by classes in addition to the public data supported by structures. But sometimes directly manipulating blocks of data can be useful, so here are some reasons for using structures:
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13. Unusual Data Types
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Use structures to clarify data relationships Structures bundle groups of related items together. Sometimes the hardest part of figuring out a program is figuring out which data goes with which other data. It s like going to a small town and asking who s related to whom. You come to find out that everybody s kind of related to everybody else, but not really, and you never get a good answer.
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If the data has been carefully structured, figuring out what goes with what is much easier. Here s an example of data that hasn t been structured:
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Visual Basic Example of Misleading, Unstructured Variables
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name = inputName address = inputAddress phone = inputPhone title = inputTitle department = inputDepartment bonus = inputBonus
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Because this data is unstructured, it looks as if all the assignment statements belong together. Actually, name, address, and phone are variables associated with individual employees and title, department, and bonus are variables associated with a supervisor. The code fragment provides no hint that there are two kinds of data at work. In the code fragment below, the use of structures makes the relationships clearer:
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Visual Basic Example of More Informative, Structured Variables
employee.name = inputName employee.address = inputAddress employee.phone = inputPhone supervisor.title = inputTitle supervisor.department = inputDepartment supervisor.bonus = inputBonus
In the code that uses structured variables, it s clear that some of the data is associated with an employee, other data with a supervisor.
Use structures to simplify operations on blocks of data You can combine related elements into a structure and perform operations on the structure. It s easier to operate on the structure than to perform the same operation on each of the elements. It s also more reliable, and it takes fewer lines of code.
Suppose you have a group of data items that belong together for instance, data about an employee in a personnel database. If the data isn t combined into a
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13. Unusual Data Types
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structure, merely copying the group of data can involve a lot of statements. Here s an example in Visual Basic:
Visual Basic Example of Copying a Group of Data Items Clumsily
newName = oldName newAddress = oldAddress newPhone = oldPhone newSsn = oldSsn newGender = oldGender newSalary = oldSalary
Every time you want to transfer information about an employee, you have to have this whole group of statements, if you ever add a new piece of employee information for example, numWithholdings you have to find every place at which you have a block of assignments and add an assignment for newNumWithholdings = oldNumWithholdings. Imagine how horrible swapping data between two employees would be. You don t have to use your imagination here it is:
CODING HORROR
Visual Basic Example of Swapping Two Groups of Data the Hard Way
' swap new and old employee data previousOldName = oldName previousOldAddress = oldAddress previousOldPhone = oldPhone previousOldSsn = oldSsn previousOldGender = oldGender previousOldSalary = oldSalary oldName = newName oldAddress = newAddress oldPhone = newPhone oldSsn = newSsn oldGender = newGender oldSalary = newSalary newName = previousOldName newAddress = previousOldAddress newPhone = previousOldPhone newSsn = previousOldSsn newGender = previousOldGender newSalary = previousOldSalary
An easier way to approach the problem is to declare a structured variable. An example of the technique is shown at the top of the next page.
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