c# barcode maker Making Code Read from Top to Bottom in Visual C#

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Making Code Read from Top to Bottom
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As a general principle, make the program read from top to bottom rather than jumping around. Experts agree that top-to-bottom order contributes most to readability. Simply making the control flow from top to bottom at run time isn t enough. If someone who is reading your code has to search the whole program to find needed information, you should reorganize the code. Here s an example:
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C++ Example of Bad Code That Jumps Around
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MARKETING_DATA *marketingData = new MARKETING_DATA; SALES_DATA *salesData = new SALES_DATA; TRAVEL_DATA *travelData = new TRAVEL_DATA; travelData.ComputeQuarterly();
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14. Organizing Straight-Line Code
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salesData.ComputeQuarterly(); marketingData.ComputeQuarterly(); salesData.ComputeAnnual(); marketingData.ComputeAnnual(); travelData.ComputeAnnual(); salesData.Print(); delete salesData; travelData.Print(); delete travelData; marketingData.Print(); delete marketingData;
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Suppose that you want to determine how marketingData is calculated. You have to start at the last line and track all references to marketingData back to the first line. marketingData is used in only a few other places, but you have to keep in mind how marketingData is used everywhere between the first and last references to it. In other words, you have to look at and think about every line of code in this fragment to figure out how marketingData is calculated. And of course this example is simpler than code you see in life-size systems. Here s the same code with better organization:
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C++ Example of Good, Sequential Code That Reads from Top to Bottom
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MARKETING_DATA *marketingData = new MARKETING_DATA; marketingData.ComputeQuarterly(); marketingData.ComputeAnnual(); marketingData.Print(); delete marketingData; SALES_DATA *salesData = new SALES_DATA; salesData.ComputeQuarterly(); salesData.ComputeAnnual(); salesData.Print(); delete salesData; TRAVEL_DATA *travelData = new TRAVEL_DATA; travelData.ComputeQuarterly(); travelData.ComputeAnnual(); travelData.Print(); delete travelData;
A more technical definition of 9 live variables is given in 0 Measuring the Live Time of 1 a Variable in Section 10.4.
8 CROSS-REFERENCE
This code is better in several ways. References to each object are kept close together; they re localized. The number of lines of code in which the objects are live is small. And perhaps most important, the code now looks as if it could be broken into separate routines for marketing, sales, and travel data. The first code fragment gave no hint that such a decomposition was possible.
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14. Organizing Straight-Line Code
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Grouping Related Statements
Programming Process, your code will automatically be grouped into related statements. For details on the process, see 9, The Pseudocode Programming Process.
4 CROSS-REFERENCE If 5 you follow the Pseudocode
Put related statements together. They can be related because they operate on the same data, perform similar tasks, or depend on each other s being performed in order. An easy way to test whether related statements are grouped well is to print out a listing of your routine and then draw boxes around the related statements. If the statements are ordered well, you ll get a picture like that shown in Figure 14-1, in which the boxes don t overlap.
F14xx01
Figure 14-1 If the code is well organized into groups, boxes drawn around related sections don t overlap. They might be nested.
If statements aren t ordered well, you ll get a picture something like that shown in Figure 14-2, in which the boxes do overlap. If you find that your boxes overlap, reorganize your code so that related statements are grouped better.
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14. Organizing Straight-Line Code
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F14xx02
Figure 14-2 If the code is organized poorly, boxes drawn around related sections overlap.
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Once you ve grouped related statements, you might find that they re strongly related and have no meaningful relationship to the statements that precede or follow them. In such a case, you might want to put the strongly related statements into their own routine.
Checklist: Organizing Straight-Line Code
Does the code make dependencies among statements obvious Do the names of routines make dependencies obvious Do parameters to routines make dependencies obvious Do comments describe any dependencies that would otherwise be unclear Have housekeeping variables been used to check for sequential dependencies in critical sections of code Does the code read from top to bottom Are related statements grouped together Have relatively independent groups of statements been moved into their own routines
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