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16.2 Controlling the Loop
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What can go wrong with a loop Any answer would have to include at the very least incorrect or omitted loop initialization, omitted initialization of accumulators or other variables related to the loop, improper nesting, incorrect termination of the loop, forgetting to increment a loop variable or incrementing the variable incorrectly, and indexing an array element from a loop index incorrectly. You can forestall these problems by observing two practices. First, minimize the number of factors that affect the loop. Simplify! Simplify! Simplify! Second, treat the inside of the loop as if it were a routine keep as much of the control as possible outside the loop. Explicitly state the conditions under which the body of the loop is to be executed. Don t make the reader look inside the loop to understand the loop control. Think of a loop as a black box: The surrounding program knows the control conditions but not the contents.
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C++ Example of Treating a Loop as a Black Box
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while ( !inputFile.EndOfFile() && moreDataAvailable ) {
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If you use the FOREVER-break technique described earlier, the exit condition is inside the black box. Even if you use only one exit condition, you lose the benefit of treating the loop as a black box.
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What are the conditions under which this loop terminates Clearly, all you know is that either inputFile.EndOfFile() becomes true or MoreDataAvailable becomes false.
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16. Controlling Loops
Page 8
Entering the Loop
Here are several guidelines for entering a loop:
Enter the loop from one location only A variety of loop-control structures allows you to test at the beginning, middle, or end of a loop. These structures are rich enough to allow you to enter the loop from the top every time. You don t need to enter at multiple locations. Put initialization code directly before the loop The Principle of Proximity advocates putting related statements together. If related statements are strewn across a routine, it s easy to overlook them during modification and to make the modifications incorrectly. If related statements are kept together, it s easier to avoid errors during modification.
Keep loop-initialization statements with the loop they re related to. If you don t, you re more likely to cause errors when you generalize the loop into a bigger loop and forget to modify the initialization code. The same kind of error can occur when you move or copy the loop code into a different routine without moving or copying its initialization code. Putting initializations away from the loop in the data-declaration section or in a housekeeping section at the top of the routine that contains the loop invites initialization troubles.
In C++, use the FOREVER macro for infinite loops and event loops You might have a loop that runs without terminating for example, a loop in firmware such as a pacemaker or a microwave oven. Or you might have a loop that terminates only in response to an event an event loop. You could code an infinite loop in several ways, but the following macro is the standard way to code one in C++:
C++ Example of an Infinite Loop
#define FOREVER ... FOREVER { ... } for (;;)
8 Here s the infinite loop.
This technique is the standard way to implement infinite loops and event loops. Faking an infinite loop with a statement like for i := 1 to 9999 is making a poor substitution because using loop limits muddies the intent of the loop maybe 9999 is a legitimate value. Such a fake infinite loop can also break down under maintenance.
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16. Controlling Loops
Page 9
In C++ and Java, use for( ;; ) or while( true ) for infinite loops As an alternative to the FOREVER macro, the for( ; ; ) and while( true ) idioms are also considered standard ways of writing infinite loops in C++ and Java. In C++, prefer for loops when they re appropriate The C++ for loop is one of the language s powerful constructs. Not only is it flexible, but it packages loop-control code in one place, which makes for readable loops. One mistake programmers commonly make when modifying software is changing the loop-initialization code at the top of a loop but forgetting to change related code at the bottom. In a C++ for loop, all the relevant code is together at the top of the loop, which makes correct modifications easier. If you can use the for loop appropriately in C++ instead of another kind of loop, do it. Don t use a for loop when a while loop is more appropriate A common abuse of C++ s flexible for loop is haphazardly cramming the contents of a while loop into a for loop header. The following example shows a while loop crammed into a for loop header.
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