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ASSERT ( !"LoadString IDS_DBGEVENTINIT failed!" ) ; return ( INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) ; } // The handle of the startup acknowledgment that this function // will wait on until the debug thread gets started HANDLE hStartAck = NULL ; // Create the startup acknowledgment event. hStartAck = CreateEvent ( NULL TRUE FALSE signaled szStartAck ) ; // Event name ASSERT ( NULL != hStartAck ) ; if ( NULL == hStartAck ) { return ( INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) ; } // Bundle up the parameters. THREADPARAMS stParams ; stParams.lpPID = lpPID ; stParams.pUserClass = pUserClass ; stParams.szDebuggee = szDebuggee ; stParams.szCmdLine = szCmdLine ; , , , // Default security // Manual-reset event // Initial state=Not
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// The handle to the debug thread HANDLE hDbgThread = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ; // Try to create the thread. UINT dwTID = 0 ; hDbgThread = (HANDLE)_beginthreadex ( NULL 0 &stParams 0 &dwTID 71 , , , , ) ;
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ASSERT ( INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE != hDbgThread ) ; if (INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE == hDbgThread ) { VERIFY ( CloseHandle ( hStartAck ) ) ; return ( INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) ; } // Wait until the debug thread gets good and cranking. DWORD dwRet = ::WaitForSingleObject ( hStartAck , INFINITE ) ; ASSERT (WAIT_OBJECT_0 == dwRet ) ; if (WAIT_OBJECT_0 != dwRet ) { VERIFY ( CloseHandle ( hStartAck ) ) ; VERIFY ( CloseHandle ( hDbgThread ) ) ; return ( INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) ; } // Get rid of the acknowledgment handle. VERIFY ( CloseHandle ( hStartAck ) ) ; // Check that the debug thread is still running. If it isn't, // the debuggee probably couldn't get started. DWORD dwExitCode = ~STILL_ACTIVE ; if ( FALSE == GetExitCodeThread ( hDbgThread , &dwExitCode ) ) { ASSERT ( !"GetExitCodeThread failed!" ) ; VERIFY ( CloseHandle ( hDbgThread ) ) ; return ( INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) ; } ASSERT ( STILL_ACTIVE == dwExitCode ) ; if ( STILL_ACTIVE != dwExitCode ) { VERIFY ( CloseHandle ( hDbgThread ) ) ; return ( INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) ; } // Create the synchronization events so that the main thread can // tell the debug loop what to do. BOOL bCreateDbgSyncEvts =
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ASSERT ( TRUE == bCreateDbgSyncEvts ) ; if ( FALSE == bCreateDbgSyncEvts ) { // This is a serious problem. I got the debug thread going, but // I was unable to create the synchronization events that the // user interface thread needs to control the debug thread. My // only option here is to punt. I'll kill the // debug thread and just return. I can't do much else. TRACE ( "StartDebugging : CreateDebugSyncEvents failed\n" ) ; VERIFY ( TerminateThread ( hDbgThread , (DWORD)-1 ) ) ; VERIFY ( CloseHandle ( hDbgThread ) ) ; return ( INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) ; } // Just in case someone modifies the function and fails to properly // initialize the returned value. ASSERT ( INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE != hDbgThread ) ; // Life is good! return ( hDbgThread ) ; }
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Assertions in .NET Windows Forms or Console Applications Before I get into the gritty details of .NET assertions, I want to mention one key mistake I've seen in almost all .NET code written, especially in many of the samples from which developers are lifting code to build their applications. Everyone forgets that it's entirely possible to have an object parameter passed as null. Even when developers are using assertions, the code looks like the following: void DoSomeWork ( string TheName ) { Debug.Assert ( TheName.Length > 0 ) ;
Instead of triggering the assertion, if TheName is null, calling the Length property causes a System.NullReferenceException exception in your application, effectively crashing it. This is the horrible case where the assertion is causing a nasty side effect, thus breaking 73
the cardinal rule of assertions. Of course, it logically follows that if developers aren't checking for null objects in their assertions, they aren't checking for them in their normal parameter checking. Do yourself a huge favor and start checking objects for null. The fact that .NET applications don't have to worry about pointers and memory blocks means that at least 60 percent of the assertions we were used to handling in the C++ days just went away. On the assertion front, the .NET team added as part of the System.Diagnostic namespace two objects, Debug and Trace, which are active only if you defined DEBUG or TRACE, respectively, when compiling your application. Both of these defines can be specified as part of the project Property Pages dialog box. As you've seen, the Assert method is the method handling assertions in .NET. Interestingly enough, both Debug and Trace have identical methods, including an Assert method. I find it a little confusing to have two possible assertions that are conditionally compiled differently. Consequently, since assertions should be active only in debug builds, I use only Debug.Assert for assertions. Doing so avoids surprises from end users calling me up and asking about a weird dialog box or message telling them something went bad. I strongly suggest you do the same so that you contribute to some consistency in the world of assertions. There are three overloaded Assert methods. All three take a Boolean value as their first or only parameter, and if the value is false, the assertion is triggered. As shown in the preceding examples in which I used Debug.Assert, one of the methods takes a second parameter of type string, which is shown as a message in the output. The final overloaded Assert method takes a third parameter of type string, which provides even more information when the assertion triggers. In my experience, the two-parameter approach is the easiest to use because I simply copy the condition checked in the first parameter and paste it in as a string. Of course, now that the assertion requiring the conditional expression is in quotes, make it part of your code reviews to verify that the string value always matches the real condition. The following code shows all three Assert methods in action: Debug.Assert ( i > 3 ) Debug.Assert ( i > 3 , "i > 3" ) Debug.Assert parameter") ( i > 3 , "i > 3" , "This means I got a bad
The .NET Debug object is intriguing because you can see the output in multiple ways. The output for the Debug object and the Trace object for that matter goes through another object, named a TraceListener. Classes derived from TraceListener are added to the Debug object's Listener collection property. The beauty of the TraceListener approach is that each time an assertion fails, the Debug object runs through the Listener collection and calls each TraceListener object in turn. This convenient functionality means that even when new and improved ways of reporting assertions surface, you won't have to make major code changes to benefit from them. Even better, in the next section, I'll show you how you can add new TraceListener objects without changing your code at all, which makes for ultimate extensibility! The default TraceListener object, appropriately named DefaultTraceListener, sends the output to two different places, the most visible of which is the assertion message box shown in Figure 3-1. As you can see in the figure, the bulk of the message box is taken up with the stack walk and parameter types as well as the source and line for each item. The top lines of the message box report the string values you passed to Debug.Assert. In
the case of Figure 3-1, I just passed "Debug.Assert assertion" as the second parameter to Debug.Assert.
Figure 3-1: The DefaultTraceListener message box The result of pressing each button is described in the title bar for the message box. The only interesting button is Retry. If you're running under a debugger, you simply drop into the debugger at the line directly after the assertion. If you're not running under a debugger, clicking Retry triggers a special exception and then launches the Just In Time debugger selector to allow you to pick which registered debugger you'd like to use to debug the assertion. In addition to the message box output, Debug.Assert also sends all the output through OutputDebugString so the attached debugger will get the output. The output has a nearly identical format, shown in the following code. Since the DefaultTraceListener does the OutputDebugString output, you can always use Mark Russinovich's excellent DebugView ( to view the output even when you're not running under a debugger. I'll discuss this in more detail later in the chapter.
---- DEBUG ASSERTION FAILED ------- Assert Short Message ---Debug.Assert assertion ---- Assert Long Message ----
at HappyAppy.Fum()
d:\asserterexample\asserter.cs(15) sb)
at HappyAppy.Fo(StringBuilder d:\asserterexample\asserter.cs(20) at HappyAppy.Fi(IntPtr p) at HappyAppy.Fee(String d:\asserterexample\asserter.cs(29) at HappyAppy.Baz(Double d) at HappyAppy.Bar(Object o) at HappyAppy.Foo(Int32 i) at HappyAppy.Main()
d:\asserterexample\asserter.cs(24) Blah)
d:\asserterexample\asserter.cs(34) d:\asserterexample\asserter.cs(39) d:\asserterexample\asserter.cs(46)
Armed with the information supplied by Debug.Assert, you should never again have to wonder how you got into the assertion condition! The .NET Framework also supplies two other TraceListener objects. To write the output to a text file, use the TextWriterTraceListener class. To write the output to the event log, use the EventLogTraceListener class. Unfortunately, the TextWriterTraceListener and EventLogTraceListener classes are essentially worthless because they log only the message fields to your assertions and not the stack trace at all. The good news is that implementing your own TraceListener objects is fairly trivial, so as part of BugslayerUtil.NET.DLL, I went ahead and wrote the correct versions for TextWriterTraceListener and EventLogTraceListener for you: BugslayerTextWriterTraceListener and BugslayerEventLogTraceListener, respectively. Neither BugslayerTextWriterTraceListener nor BugslayerEventLogTraceListener are very exciting classes. BugslayerTextWriterTraceListener is derived directly from TextWriterTraceListener, so all it does is override the Fail method, which is what Debug.Assert calls to do the output. Keep in mind that when using BugslayerTextWriterTraceListener or TextWriterTraceListener, the associated text file for the output isn't flushed unless you set the trace element autoflush attribute to true in the application configuration file, explicitly call Close on the stream or file, or set Debug.AutoFlush to true so that each write causes a flush to disk. For some bizarre reason, the EventLogTraceListener class is sealed, so I couldn't derive directly from it and had to derive from the abstract TraceListener class directly. However, I did retrieve the stack trace in an interesting way. The default StackTrace class provided by .NET makes it easy to get the current stack trace at any point, as the following snippet shows: StackTrace StkTrc = new StackTrace ( ) ; Compared with the gyrations you have to go through with native code to get a stack trace, the .NET way is a fine example of how .NET can make your life easier. StackTrace returns the collection of StackFrame objects that comprise the stack. Looking through the documentation for StackFrame, you'll see that it has all sorts of interesting methods for getting the source line and number. The StackTrace object has a ToString method that I thought for sure would have some sort of option for adding the source and line to the resulting stack trace. Alas, I was wrong. Therefore, I had to spend 30 minutes coding up and testing a class that BugslayerStackTrace derived from StackTrace, which overrides ToString, to add the source and line information beside each method. The two methods from BugslayerStackTrace that do the work are shown in Listing 3-3. Listing 3-3: BugslayerStackTrace building a full stack trace with source and line information /// <summary> /// Builds a readable representation of the stack trace /// </summary> /// <returns> /// A readable representation of the stack trace /// </returns> public override string ToString ( ) 76
{ // New up the StringBuilder to hold all the stuff. StringBuilder StrBld = new StringBuilder ( ) ; // First thing on is a line feed. StrBld.Append ( DefaultLineEnd ) ; // Loop'em and do'em! You can't use foreach here as StackTrace // is not derived from IEnumerable. for ( int i = 0 ; i < FrameCount ; i++ ) { StackFrame StkFrame = GetFrame ( i ) ; if ( null != StkFrame ) { BuildFrameInfo ( StrBld , StkFrame ) ; } } return ( StrBld.ToString ( ) ) ; } /*///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Private methods. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////*/ /// <summary> /// Takes care of the scut work to convert a frame into a string /// and to plop it into a string builder /// </summary> /// <param name="StrBld"> /// The StringBuilder to append the results to /// </param> /// <param name="StkFrame"> /// The stack frame to convert /// </param> private void BuildFrameInfo ( StringBuilder StrBld StackFrame { // Get the method from all the cool reflection stuff. MethodBase Meth = StkFrame.GetMethod ( ) ; // If nothing is returned, get out now. if ( null == Meth ) 77 StkFrame , )
{ return ; } // Grab the method. String StrMethName = Meth.ReflectedType.Name ; // Slap in the function indent if one is there. if ( null != FunctionIndent ) { StrBld.Append ( FunctionIndent ) ; } // Get the class type and name on there. StrBld.Append ( StrMethName ) ; StrBld.Append ( "." ) ; StrBld.Append ( Meth.Name ) ; StrBld.Append ( "(" ) ; // Slap the parameters on, including all param names. ParameterInfo[] Params = Meth.GetParameters ( ) ; for ( int i = 0 ; i < Params.Length ; i++ ) { ParameterInfo CurrParam = Params[ i ] ; StrBld.Append ( CurrParam.ParameterType.Name ) ; StrBld.Append ( " " ) ; StrBld.Append ( CurrParam.Name ) ; if ( i != ( Params.Length - 1 ) ) { StrBld.Append ( ", " ) ; } } // Close the param list. StrBld.Append ( ")" ) ; // Get the source and line on only if there is one. if ( null != StkFrame.GetFileName ( ) ) { // Am I supposed to indent the source put 78 If so, I need to
// a line break on the end followed by the indent. if ( null != SourceIndentString ) { StrBld.Append ( LineEnd ) ; StrBld.Append ( SourceIndentString ) ; } else { // Just add a space. StrBld.Append ( ' ' ) ; } // Get the file and line of the problem on here. StrBld.Append ( StkFrame.GetFileName ( ) ) ; StrBld.Append ( "(" ) ; StrBld.Append ( StkFrame.GetFileLineNumber().ToString()); StrBld.Append ( ")" ) ; } // Always stick a line feed on. StrBld.Append ( LineEnd ) ; }
Now that you have other TraceListener classes that are worth adding to the Listeners collection, we can add and remove TraceListener objects in code. As with any .NET collection, call the Add method to add an object and the Remove method to get rid of one. Note that the default trace listener is named "Default." The following code example shows adding BugslayerTextWriterTraceListener and removing DefaultTraceListener: Stream AssertFile = File.Create ( "BSUNBTWTLTest.txt" ) ; BugslayerTextWriterTraceListener tListener = new BugslayerTextWriterTraceListener ( AssertFile ) ; Debug.Listeners.Add ( tListener ) ; Debug.Listeners.Remove ( "Default" ) ; Controlling the TraceListener Object with Configuration Files If you develop console and Windows Forms applications, for the most part, DefaultTraceListener should serve most of your needs. However, having a message box that pops up every once in a while can wreak havoc on any automated test scripts you might have. Alternatively, you use a third-party component in a Win32 service and the 79
debug build of that component is properly using Debug.Assert. In both of these cases, you want to be able to shut off the message box generated by DefaultTraceListener. You could add code to remove the DefaultTraceListener object, but you can also remove it without touching the code. Any .NET binary can have an external XML configuration file associated with it. This file resides in the same directory as the binary and is the name of the binary with .CONFIG appended to the end. For example, the configuration file for FOO.EXE is FOO.EXE.CONFIG. You can easily add a configuration file to your project by adding a new XML file named APP.CONFIG. That file will automatically be copied to the output directory and named to match the binary. In the XML configuration file, the assert element under system.diagnostics has two attributes. If you set the first attribute, assertuienabled, to false, .NET doesn't display message boxes and the output still goes through OutputDebugString. The second attribute, logfilename, allows you to specify a file you want any assertion output written to. Interestingly, when you specify a file in the logfilename attribute, any trace statements, which I'll discuss later in the chapter, will also appear in the file. A minimal configuration file is shown in the next code snippet, and you can see how easy it is to shut off the assertion message boxes. Don't forget that the master configuration file MACHINE.CONFIG has the same settings as the EXE configuration file, so you can optionally turn off message boxes on the whole machine using the same settings. < xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" > <configuration> <system.diagnostics> <assert assertuienabled="false" logfilename="tracelog.txt" /> </system.diagnostics> </configuration> As I mentioned earlier, you can add and remove listeners without touching the code, and as you probably guessed, the configuration file has something to do with it. This file looks straightforward in the documentation, but the documentation at the time I am writing this book is not correct. After a little experimentation, I figured out all the gyrations necessary to control your listeners correctly without changing the code. All the action happens under the trace element of the configuration. The trace element happens to have one very important optional attribute you should always set to true in your configuration files: autoflush. By setting autoflush to true, you force the output buffer to be flushed each time a write operation occurs. If you don't set autoflush, you'll have to add calls to your code to get the output. Underneath trace is the listener element, where TraceListener objects are added or removed. Removing a TraceListener object is very simple. Specify the remove element, and set the name attribute to the string name of the desired TraceListener object. Below is the complete configuration file necessary to remove DefaultTraceListener.
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