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Lesson 2: Creating and Consuming XML Web Services
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Creating an ASP.NET Web Service
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The Internet and its supported standards for HTTP and XML make web services possible. However, having to program directly against HTTP, XML, and SOAP is a challenging (and time-consuming) proposition. Luckily, ASP.NET provides a model for building and consuming XML web services. With it, you can define a web service as an ASMX file and related codebehind class. ASP.NET will then wrap this code as a web service object and expose your service endpoint as the URL to your ASMX file. ASP.NET will take care of deserializing SOAP requests, executing your .NET Framework code, and serializing your response to be sent back to the requesting client as a SOAP message.
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ASP.NET Web Service Templates
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An XML web service in ASP.NET is defined in an ASMX file. This file can be added directly to an existing website. This is useful if you want your website to expose web services in addition to webpages. Of course, you can also create an empty website project and use it for only ASMX web service files. A web service website works like any other ASP.NET website. It includes the standard ASP.NET folders, a Web.config file, and related elements. It is important to note that a web service is hosted within ASP.NET and by IIS; therefore, it has access to features such as session state, security model, configuration, and so on. Like a webpage, web services are exposed through URLs. This means that you access a web service by using your domain name followed by a page name, as in http://MyDomain /MyService.asmx. The resource for an XML web service is accessed through the ASMX file. This file is nothing more than a simple text file that is used as a pointer to the code for your web service. You add an ASMX file to your site for each web service you want to expose. You can do so by using the Add New Item dialog box and selecting the Web Service template. When you do, Visual Studio creates an ASMX file and puts a related class file inside the App_Code directory. As an example, suppose you want to write an XML web service that exposes methods related to working with the author data in Microsoft s sample database, Pubs. You might start by creating an ASMX file called Authors.asmx. This file would contain an @ WebService directive that points to the actual code for the web service. The following shows an example of the markup you would see in the ASMX file.
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Sample of Visual Basic Code <%@ WebService Language="VB" CodeBehind="~/App_Code/Authors.cs" Class="Authors" %> Sample of C# Code <%@ WebService Language="C#" CodeBehind="~/App_Code/Authors.cs" Class="Authors" %>
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This markup is similar to what you would see for a webpage. However, there is no additional markup included inside a web service. Instead, the web service is defined entirely in code, which in this case would be the Authors.cs file. Think of the web service class file as an object that only exposes methods. Therefore, each web service can expose multiple methods. We will look at writing the actual web services next.
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The Web.Services Namespace
An ASP.NET XML web service class file inherits from the System.Web.Services.WebService class. This class provides a wrapper for your web service code. In this way, you are free to write web methods in pretty much the same way you would write any other method. The WebService class and ASP.NET take care of the rest. Figure 10-3 shows the objects used by most ASP.NET XML web services.
FigURE 10-3 Classes related to creating ASP.NET web services.
Each of these classes controls how your web service works and how ASP.NET and the compiler view your web service code. You can inherit from the WebService class to get access to standard ASP.NET features. The attribute classes allow you to mark parts of your code as related to XML web services. Items marked for use as web services are identified by ASP.NET. It then knows how to deserialize requests for your service, call your service, and serialize the response. It also handles working with SOAP, XML, Web Services Description Language (WSDL), and the related web service standards. You will see how each of these classes is used for creating web services in the upcoming sections.
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