java barcode reader The JAX family Java APIs for XML processing in Java

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Table 2.1 The JAX family Java APIs for XML processing
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Java API for XML
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Java API for XML parsing Java Document Object Model Java API for XML binding Long Term JavaBeans Persistence Java API for XML messaging
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JAX acronym
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JAXP
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Functional description
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Provides implementation-neutral access to XML parsers and XSLT processors. Provides a Java-centric, object-oriented implementation of the DOM framework. Provides a persistent XML mapping for Java object storage as XML. Similar to JAXB, provides XML serialization for JavaBean components.
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JDOM
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JAXB
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JAXM
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Enables the use of SOAP messaging in Java applications, using resource factories in a manner similar to the Java Messaging Service (JMS). An XML-RPC implementation API for Java. Similar to JAXM. Provides implementation-neutral access to XML repositories like ebXML and UDDI.
JAX-RPC
JAX-RPC
Java API for XML repositories
JAXR
The Java APIs for XML
JAXP
JAXP provides a common interface for creating and using the SAX, DOM, and XSLT APIs in Java. It is implementation- and vendor-neutral. Your applications should use JAXP instead of accessing the underlying APIs directly to enable the
replacement of one vendor s implementation with another as desired. As faster or better implementations of the base XML APIs become available, you can upgrade to them simply by exchanging one JAR file for another. This achieves a primary goal in distributed application development: flexibility.
Application Code
JAXP API SAX Interface DOM Interface XSLT Interface
Parsers
Processors
Figure 2.8 JAXP architecture
The JAXP API architecture is depicted in figure 2.8. JAXP enables flexibility by divorcing your application code from the underlying XML APIs. You can use it to parse XML documents using SAX or DOM as the underlying strategy. You can also use it to transform XML via XSLT in a vendor-neutral way.
Table 2.2 The JAXP packages
Package
javax.xml.parsers javax.xml.transform org.xml.sax org.w3c.dom
Description
Provides a common interface to DOM and SAX parsers. Provides a common interface to XSLT processors. The generic SAX API for Java The generic DOM API for Java
XML and Java
The JAXP API consists of four packages, summarized in table 2.2. Of these, the two javax.xml packages are of primary interest. The javax.xml.parsers package contains the classes and interfaces needed to parse XML documents. The javax.xml.transform package defines the interface for XSLT processing.
Configuring JAXP To use JAXP for parsing, you require a JAXP-compliant XML parser. The JAXP reference implementation uses the Crimson parser mentioned earlier. To do XSLT processing, you also need a compliant XSLT engine. The reference implementation uses Xalan, also mentioned earlier. When you first access the JAXP parsing classes in your code, the framework initializes itself by taking the following steps:
It initially checks to see if the system property javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory or javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory has been set (depending on whether you are requesting the use of SAX or DOM). If you are requesting an XSLT transformation, the system property javax.xml.transform.TransformerFactory is checked instead. If the appropriate system property has not been set explicitly, the framework searches for a file called jaxp.properties in the lib directory of your JRE. Listing 2.5 shows how the contents of this file might appear. If the jaxp.properties file is not found, the framework looks for files on the classpath named /META-INF/services/java.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory, /META-INF/services/SAXParserFactory, and /METAINF/services/javax.xml.transform.TransformerFactory. When found, these files contain the names of the JAXP DocumentBuilder, SAXParserFactory, and TransformerFactory classes, respectively. JAXP-compliant parsers and XSLT processors contain these text files in their jars. If a suitable implementation class name cannot be found using the above steps, the platform default is used. Crimson will be invoked for parsing and Xalan for XSLT.
Statements in the following listing are shown on multiple lines for clarity. In an actual jaxp.properties file, each statement should appear as a single line with no spaces between the equals character (=) and the implementation class name.
NOTE
The Java APIs for XML
Listing 2.5 A Sample jaxp.properties file
javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory= org.apache.crimson.jaxp.DocumentBuilderFactoryImpl javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory= org.apache.crimson.jaxp.SAXParserFactoryImpl javax.xml..transform.TransformerFactory= org.apache.xalan.processor.TransformerFactoryImpl
Sets DOM builder, SAX parser, and XSLT processor implementation classes
Since JAXP-compliant parsers and processors already contain the necessary text files to map their implementation classes to the JAXP framework, the easiest way to configure JAXP is to simply place the desired parser and/or processor implementation s JAR file on your classpath, along with the JAXP jar. If, however, you find yourself with two JAXP-compliant APIs on your classpath for some other reason, you should explicitly set the implementation class(es) before using JAXP. Since you would not want to do this in your application code, the properties file approach is probably best. JAXP is now a part of the J2EE specification, meaning that your J2EE vendor is required to support it. This makes using JAXP an even easier choice over directly using a specific DOM, SAX, or XSLT implementation.
Using JAXP with SAX The key JAXP classes for use with SAX are listed in table 2.3. Before demonstrating the use of SAX via JAXP, we must digress for a moment on the low level details of SAX parsing. To use SAX with or without JAXP, you must always define one or more event handlers for the parser to use.
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